The Terrible Overfishing's Effects on the Marine Population

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Firstly, amidst large fishing fleets and some fishing methods a domino influence is produced, that threatens many Marine species. According to WWF (2018), the global catch is two and a half times the sustainable amount of fish caught in the oceans, and there may not be enough naturally bred fish to meet demand. As a result, 24 percent of fish stocks are overexploited or depleted, 52 percent of the world’s fisheries are fully exploited and no longer capable of producing larger harvests, and some important commercial fish stocks have declined to threaten levels (WWF, 2018). Moreover, numerous Marine species are affected by overfishing. For example, dolphins are destroyed by overfishing, pollution and other human damage to the environment. Consequently, according to Earth Talk (2011), the Non-profit International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) maintains a list of the world’s most endangered wildlife species, which says 36 of the world’s 40 different species of dolphins, are threatened. 

Besides, the black turtle was found only in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO), from southern California to Valparaiso. The main known nesting sites are Colola and Maruata beach, Naranjo beach and the Galapagos Islands. The black sea turtle is listed as endangered on the IUCN red list because of a global decline in crayfish populations. The reasons for the decline include overfishing and occasional catches in commercial and fishing industries (Barrientos-Muñoz; Ramírez-Gallego, Cristian, 2013). Furthermore, Harvey (2013) indicated that the Bluefin tuna has been on the verge of extinction for several years, however, recently, Bluefin tuna populations in the North Pacific has seen a sharp decline of more than 96 percent. In addition, about 90 percent of the fish caught today are young fish that had not yet bred. According to WWF (2018), only 1. 6% of the world’s oceans are declared Marine reserves, and 90% of them allow hunting. Therefore, it could be said that fishing that targets top predators such as tuna and groupers can upset the delicate balance of marine life.

Secondly, the world’s coral reefs may be at risk from a lack of scavenging fish and algal blooms caused by overfishing the world’s oceans. According to Kaplan (2019), nitrogenous fertilizers and cleaning agents have long been known to kill ecosystems by causing algal blooms, but now a study suggests that overfishing of large predatory fish is also a key factor. Moreover, Buckley (2009) describes that algae multiply to form a water column barrier that blocks sunlight and oxygen. However, a study conducted in the current Journal of Ecology shows that overfishing by top fish predators could also cause algae to multiply. 

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Furthermore, affected by these studies, the researchers from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands conducted field experiments in unpolluted waters for two years. The lack of large carnivorous fish in the waters, algae will multiply (Kaplan, 2019). Furthermore, Iraola (2018) points out that the U.S. EPA describes that some algal blooms as harmful to aquatic life because some produce toxins that sicken animals, while others decompose and consume oxygen in the water as they die off in large numbers. Furthermore, climate change and human overfishing of marine life have increased the likelihood of harmful algal blooms, prompting some researchers to study how coral reef communities treat them. Thus, it could be concluded that is algae hurt the ocean and overfishing is too much damage to the ecological balance of the ocean.

Finally, overfishing is one of the global problem with many social, economic and environmental impacts. According to Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2009), advances in fishing equipment and large fishing vessels have enabled commercial fishing to capture more fish than ever before. However, this approach is putting increasing pressure on fish stocks. Ighobor (2017) claims that overfishing occurs when the number of fish caught exceeds that of the population and can be replaced by natural reproduction. This has something to do with illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), approximately 37 species are classified as threatened with extinction. Moreover, some trawlers are licensed in Africa, while other trawlers are operating illegally. Bangula from Freetown in Sierra Leone cited in IUCN, expressing outrage over illegal fishing in Sierra Leone waters, but it is also a situation in which African countries are in trouble. In addition, a new fisheries economic report from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shows that sales of commercial and recreational seawater fishing in the United States exceeded $199 billion in 2012, an increase of 7% over last year. The economic impact of fisheries employment from 2011 to 2012 has increased by 3% (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2014). 

Furthermore, Nazli and Ertug (2017) outlines that between December 2008 and December 2011, researchers studying overfishing in the Black Sea conducted surveys at nine major fishing sites along the Black Sea coast. All data shows that fishing gear can also lead to overfishing. It is important to reduce the rate of bycatch in sustainable fisheries by using more selective fishing methods. Hence, the decline in the number of fish stocks around the world has had a serious impact on the economies of countries. 

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