The Increasing Plastic Pollution In The Ocean

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Introduction

Proposal writing on the impact caused by waste disposal in the oceans on marine life and the possible mitigations about the effects and recommendations of the future prevention and conservation of marine life. The world waters cover over 50% of the earth’s surface, and it provides a large percentage of the world’s water supply and a large portion of the oxygen used by all the other living. The ocean is a diverse, abundant, and vibrant ecosystem that primarily impacts human life. World waters (beach) are highly threatened by an increasing rate of water pollution, and the sea is highly polluted from many diverging sources, whereby plastic pollution is the leading pollutant to ocean waters. This proposal will consider various effects caused to marine life by the infection, the mitigations ways, and recommendations for possible solutions on prevention and conservation.

Statement of the problem

The increasing pollution on the sea is going beyond limits, which are facilitated by the release of harmful substances to the water bodies. The large population is relying on marine life for living either for food and other purposes. The areas, along with the coastal regions and neighboring the water bodies, are an insignificant threat due to anthropogenic activities and a rising population, which is increasing activities in the ocean. According to, Li Daoji, Alena, and Dag Daler,. when natural resources are used in unsuitable ways, and failure to consider long-term economic plans leads to adverse environmental dilapidation in a very short time span has caused deprivation has reached a glassy where the fitness and health of the people living in the coast is in danger. The chief hazards are non-living and living matters, nitrogen, phosphate, oil hydrocarbons, and weighty metals. Excessive release of fertilizers to the water bodies causes excessive availability of richly medium in waters, which promotes excessive growth of water hyacinth, which causes suffocation to marine life. Increased production of plastics is posing a severe threat to human life and marine life. The plastics, when it enters the water, give severe threats to marine life, such as destroying marine habitats, kills marine animals like water birds, fishes, sea turtles. Also, it affects the mating patterns of marine animals. In the past years, the use of plastic and other non-biodegradable synthetic materials has increased rapidly. As the use of substances has improved on the land also its entrance into water bodies has as well increased. Many plastic remnants have found their destination to the other. Both plastic and synthetic debris have increased to enter the environment, also leading to expanded entrance into water bodies. Most of these plastic and synthetic debris materials experience slow decaying effects. Once these substances enter, the water bodies remain suspending in the water surfaces for a long time due to delayed decay. The other materials that are not buoyant sink to the water bottoms. The continued deposition of these debris and plastic material accumulates large amounts of them to the depths and water surfaces. Posing a serious threat to marine life. In this scenario, the most threatened marine life includes marine mammals, seabirds, sea turtles, fishes, and crustaceans. The floating debris poses a serious threat to individual lives since it can entangle them, making them immobile, which ease their predators to catch up with them or else restrict them from looking for their food hence dying of hunger. Some water animals like dolphins and whales eat microplastics, which may block digestion track or lower the consumption drive their lives leading to an early death. Also, the entangled animals may be drowned, develop a severe cutting due to abrasive struggle with the attached debris leading to their catalyzed death. Hence plastics and plastic waste are now recognized as the major sea and ocean pollutants in the current world. 

Impacts of wastewater in ocean water

Due to increased cruise tourism, marine environmental pollution has substantially increased. This cruise ship accommodates a large number of people who, in turn, enjoy themselves, and they enjoy their meals, which is available in those large cruises. The wastewater from the hotels in the cruise is released to the ocean containing soaps, greases, and other natural oils. This substance, once released to the waters, is said to affect the breathing system of the marine life adversely. The untreated greywater released to the ocean may contain bacteria that are harmful to the bodies of the marine animals once it enters their bodies. The cruise releases large amounts of gases. These gases are also major pollutants that are adversely affecting marine life. Large cruise releases large amounts of wastewaters, which contains some chemicals which affect the bodies of the marine animals, (Perić, 2016). Increasing touristic destinations across the world are promoting sea vessel, and other water moving mediums have increased to achieve the increasing sea travel demand. Mediterranean basin is the busiest navigation crossroads to increase its navigation activities. Increased navigation has led to increased wastewater discharge to the water. This high wastewater discharge is in the highly invested area with water birds which their lives are directly threated since they source their food from the water.

Industrial waste is also another severe threat to marine animals; some of the industrial waste is fish scale, which inedible once removed are is thrown in the ocean as a way of disposal. Rahman et al., vol. 82, fall 2018, pp. 120–125. Consumption, thus, it can be concluded that fish scale waste could be treated as wealth in biotechnological industries for the reduction of toxic materials from waste effluents. The vessels operating in western and central Pacific Ocean was reported to be impacting the ocean and sea waters with excessive waste deposition in the form of oil spillage and plastics dumping in the sea. Richardson et al., 2003-2015And also the abandoned fishing gears are other significant issues in this ocean waters. The abandoned fishing gears has a similar problem as to that of plastic and synthetic debris whereby the abandoned fishing gears may trap the fishes or other marine animals which restrict their movements in the water which can cause the animal to be attacked by its predators and feed on them, apart from being attacked by its predators it can also be a major shortcoming to the life of the marine trapped animal cause it can be barred from free access to food which may make the animal starve to death.

Possible solutions

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The ecosystem stability of the environment is achieved when the pros and cons are brought to a level of equilibrium. According to Li Daoji, Alena, and Dag Daler the pros and cons of the environment around Yangtze River basin which is highly polluted which directly affect the marine life from its pollutant water which is released to the ocean is addressed by mixing the salty marine water and the Yangtze River water in an estuary, this helps in balancing the erosion of the effluents released to the ocean through the river to be treated. Construction of large Dams along the waterways which discharge their waters to the sea to treat the polluted water before its discharge to the sea can really help to address the issue of harmful effluents getting into the water bodies to address some hitches means integration of different forms of decision to the environment sustainable and such choices means combination of socioeconomic and environmental science to enhance sustainable development. The society has to have a driving force between them and have that self-esteem made to conserve the environment and have self-drive to promote environmental conservation within themselves. Practice health farming by use of biodegradable and organic fertilizers that are safe and avoid excessive use of fertilizers.

Legal approach

On the right procedure, some international and regional legislation has been put in place to control water pollution. Some laws have been put in place to control cruise travelers and operators. Other proposals have been set to control plastic and synthetic debris dumping in the ocean. The rules have to be set in all parts of the world where there is a water body to prevent more water pollution and future dumping in the sea. For example, regional organizations which are set to control ocean pollution are London Dumping Convention is used to manage the marine operation when traveling on the waters of London, whereby the Law of sea Convention and international Agreement on vessel-source pollution are examples of international laws which governs water going to address the pollution problem. These bodies are used to implement specific mitigation measures that are made to solve the plastic dumping problem in the sea. International agreements and federal laws are the ones that can highly address the issue of chemical dumping in the ocean, which is a severe problem. International Relating to Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is used to tackle plastic pollution from traveling vessels across the globe. Chemical pollution from boats can also be sent by other bodies like pollution laws, fishery, wildlife conservation, and even fishing gear compensation programmed varying with its intensity and impact on marine life. The authorities, as mentioned earlier, give adverse advise on the problem to be address and the depth of the matter to enable the right jurisdiction to address the issue. The primary focus of the said authorities is to ensure prevention from further pollution as well as some ways to control the already existing menace. Some methods of addressing the plastics pollution in the ocean can be advising the production companies to manufacture biodegradable plastic materials that can rot quickly and also encourage the plastic users on the importance of recycling and reuse instead of dumping them in the oceans. This legal approach requires close monitoring, reporting to relevant enforcement departments. this is also advised to be exercised concerning all vessels operating in the pacific ocean in case of pollution laws violation.

Wastewater treatment

Centralized Wastewater management is alienated by supervision preparation in japan, while on-site wastewater treatment amenities are compulsorily mounted in the areas of federal wastewater handling systems in Thailand. According to Tsuzuki et al. 2009a; Tsuzuki, 2011). Water treatment should be installed in all areas of concern, mostly referred to as hotspots. This should be done to ensure easy access to purified water by all the residence. All wastewater being discharged to the water bodies should be treated before its released to the water bodies; this is to reduce the threats it poses to the marine life once it discharged while untreated. Due to the increasing rate of cruise tourism, it is essential to forecast future possible wastewater pollution to plan to address the problem. Technological advances help to predict the possible next numbers of people to be traveling in a reasonable given period, which allows preparing the proper way to address the wastewater pollution. The technology also offers options to purify the wastewater before it is released to the ocean. 

Accumulations of heavy metals

Research earlier contacted shows that brackish water fishes, red tilapia, and Asian sea bass contain a carcinogenic substance that can help in the extraction of heavy metals such as zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium metals. The research contacted shows that the Asian sea bass contains the highest levels of heavy metals. The study also showed that the fishes accumulated large amounts of the essential minerals than non-important substances in their bodies. The scales are rich in biotechnological industries, which are used to lessen harmful materials from waste effluents.

Recommendations

Recommendations are made that the environmental conservation should be the key before carrying out any activity which is either along the oceans and other water bodies or in the water bodies. Plastic and plastic debris is a persistent pollutant, and it should be avoided as much as possible to make ocean waters safe for marine life. Wastewater treatment facilities should be installed in all water points to ensure water purification before it is released to the sea. Recycling and reuse of plastic substances should be highly practiced to minimize plastic pollution. Large travel cruises should be installed with purifiers and collecting bins to avoid the release of harmful substances to the ocean, which effluents from great sails pose a severe threat to marine animals. Fish gears should not be left in the ocean waters, for it may cause serious harm to the animals living in the water.

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