Cultural Tourism In India

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Niche Tourism focuses on a specific aspect of traveling. Some people just want to view old architecture,some want to eat at Michelin-starred restaurants,and others want to tour obscure museums. Niche tourism is any kind of tourism that focuses on a specific activity that usually would not be the sole focus of a trip.(Vashovsky.E.n.d).

Cultural tourism can play an important role and contribute to all these three types of identity; for instance; promoting „national monuments‟ thus supporting legitimate identity, creating „alternative” cultural itineraries for resistant identity and of course promoting new images for communities for projectual identity. However, no matter how this process of „commodification of culture‟ proceeds, the social costs of it cannot be ignored. (Santana, 1997). However by examining the definition of cultural tourism, it becomes clear that “what has changed is the extent of cultural tourism consumption, and the forms of culture being consumed by cultural tourists.” (Richards, 1996). This research will explain history ,religious places in India and consequenecs.

Researchers around the world observed cultural activities, such as arts and heritage, as the main reasons for travel (Mitrut &Constantin, 2009; & OECD, 2009). Tourism is essentially a service-based industry and the principal product offered by tourism industry is experience and hospitality (Kumar, 2010; and Dasgupta, 2011). The tourism industry is one of the key sectors of earnings for India (Ganesh, 2014). Tourism plays a key role in the socioeconomic progress through the creation of jobs, development of enterprise, infrastructure, and earnings of revenue.

The Planning Commission of India identified tourism as the second largest sector in providing employment opportunities for low-skilled workers in the country (MOT, 2012). Tourism directly generates jobs in its own sector as well as in connected sectors of the economy (via indirect and induced effects). Travel and tourism directly create employment opportunities in hotels, restaurants, airlines, travel agencies, passenger ships, etc. On the other hand, as a result of the spread effect, it creates jobs in industries like construction, telecommunication, manufacturing, and retail trade (Mishra &Ojha, 2014).

Prigrimage and power: The kumbh Mela in Allahabad (India)

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The first British account of the Kumbh mela in Haridwar, published in the influential journal Asiatick Reseachers, describing the 1796 visit of captain Thomas Hardwicke, remains seminal to understanding of the kumbh. “ Hardwicke describe the mela as acolourful but chaotic fair, a contradictory mix of revolt religious observance and ruthless mercantile opportunity ,govered by revial sects(akharas) of militant,unpredictable ,and sometimes nude holy men”. (Kama Maclean ,1954) The scale of the 1796 kumbh fair was estimated by Hardwicke,in consultation with a Gosain who had access to a register of taxes exacted from pilgrims, at two and a half million people. The mela turned to melee on the final day of the fair,when a large body of udasis suddenly attacked “with swords,spears and firearms, every tribe of fakirs that came in their way”,indiscrinately slaughtering pilgrims ,killing at least five hundered souls. The intervention of one capital murray, two companies of sepoys,and two six -pounder cannons forced the attacking into retreat.(Kama Maclean,1954).

Culture and heritage are an essential part of tourism (Clarke, 2008; and Voon and Lee, 2009). The terms ‘cultural tourism’, ‘heritage tourism’, and ‘ethnic tourism’ are almost identical (Timothy and Boyd, 2003). It is a complex task to define the term cultural tourism (Kantanen and Tikkanen, 2005). Since cultural tourism means different things to different people, no single definition of cultural tourism has yet achieved consensus in tourism literature (Foo and Rossetto, 1998). For some people, tourists with special interest in culture belong to the segment of cultural tourism. And for some others, cultural tourism usually means a visit to cultural institutions or places such as museums, archeological and heritage sites, operas, theaters, festivals or architecture away from home (Lambert, 2011).

The European Center for Traditional and Regional Cultures has provided a typical list of the types of attractions or sites which are considered to attract cultural tourists. Such destinations include archaeological sites and museums, religious festivals, pilgrimages, architecture (ruins, famous buildings, whole towns), art, sculpture, crafts, galleries, festivals, events, music and dance (classical, folk, contemporary), drama (theater, films, dramatists), language and literature study, tours, events, complete (folk or primitive) cultures and sub-cultures.(Mishra & Ojha,2017).

Golden Temple (India)

The Golden Temple is the nuclers of tourist activity in Punjab. Actually ,the city of Amritsar and the golden temple are synonymous .It is, therefore,necessary to start tourism planning and management from this central temple complex which is looked after by the Shiromani gurudwara Prabandhak committee (golden temple Managememt Authority) and is well maintained and preserved(Manjula,2011,p.67-63). It is, therefore, necessary to conserve the whole area surrounding Golden temple . The nucleus, the golden Temple complex experiences intense pressure from urban development in the surrounding areas . Because these sites may be eroded in importance and aesthetic appeal , Gunn (1997) recommended such areas to be an ‘inviolate belt’. It is further surrounded by the ‘zone of closure’,a surrounding areas that provide access and include one and more services communicates and in the case of Amritsar it is the inner circulation road running all along major 12 gates of the walled city.(Choudhary ,2011)

In conclusion, the culture and heritage tourism has a great significance in the modern world in travel and tourism sector. Moreover , it has proved to be one of the primary source of generating revenue. Therefore,the historical worth of the heritage and cultural preservation and conservation in their usual form. Besides, the reason for the maintenance is because tourists come from far and wide to learn the historical attributes,value,culture as well as ethical norms. (Doteh ,2008,pg.17)


  1. Choudhary M.,(2011).Journal of Tourism challenges and trends ,67-83.Retrieved from
  2. Hardwicke.T.,(1796).,Journal Asiatick ResearchersMaclean,K.(1954).Piligrimage and power:The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad Mishra.
  3. A.,& Ojha,N.K.,(2017).Journal of Managenent research.
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