Creative Tourism as a Form of Cultural Tourism

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Tourism has an important role in the expansion of destinations, it can be domestic and international. Both, an international and national tourism are closely interconnected influencing each other. Traveling around means seeing the world, meeting new people and experiencing new cultures (MacCannell, D 2013). However, people travel with various purposes. Most common type of tourism is associated with recreation (Kotler, P. & Keller, P 2011). So, recreational tourism is accomplishing different activities from their day to day life, where most often tourist chooses beaches, theme parks and camp grounds (Kabia, K & Sunil, P 2010). Moreover, cultural tourism, nature tourism, pleasure tourism, sports tourism, religious tourism, medical tourism and adventure tourism are the different types of tourism (Levinson, J.C 2007). Tourism is the main source of income in several countries.

Similarly, these days there are lots of tours companies, hotels and airlines working together to give the easiest destination to the travellers through tour package. Mostly people are attracted with this form of tourism as it is the easiest way which goes with one payment and are usually cheaper than doing it individually. Precisely, development of mass tourism has been smoothed by travel revolution and also by the development of intercontinental understanding and relations within the nations (Allee, J. & Kotler, N. 2011b). Tourist travelling as a volunteer tourist are continuously growing as the aid from the countries, travellers are emphasis to help and support less fortune countries, especially with the victims of earthquake, floods and landslides (Stephen, J. 2015). In the countries of Europe, Canada and several states of United states winter tourism are very popular and are growing continuously (Allee, J & Kotler, N 2011a). According to the research done by Global Sustainable Tourism (2014), International tourism is in increasing order. The number of tourists was 25 million globally in 1950, to 278 million in 1980, 527 million in 1995, and 1.32 billion in 2017. This is expected to reach 1.8 billion by 2030. In worldwide the tourism industry has created almost 11% of the world’s employment (direct & indirect) in 2016 and also represents 10%of total global gross domestic product in 2016 from tourism related business.

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Cultural Tourism

According to Ashworth (1995) & Richard (2014) “The movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new formation and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs” is the cultural tourism. It is one of the largest and fastest rising global tourism markets. According to world tourism organisation (2009), cultural tourism accounts for 37% of global tourism and continues to growth 15% each year. American Traveler Survey (2008) says that over 70% of traveler’s accounts to visit historic attractions like local or national park, an art gallery or museum and ecological heritage site in each destination. They also have attended concert, play or musical programmes. MacCannell (2013) says “all tourism is a cultural experience” and Urry (2012) trusts that “tourism is culture”, he added that the tourism is always concerned with a country or region's culture and provides opportunity to learn the way of life.

Cultural tourism means exploring cultural environments, including landscapes, the visual and performing arts, and local lifestyles, values, traditions and events (Pereiro, X. 2016). It is effectively a substitute for heritage or traditional tourism where a traveller can feel the charm of local groups’ background, traditions, folklore, spaces and values. Culture develops the tourism by promoting both tangible and intangible elements (Kaul, N.R 2012). Tangible includes cultural charms like museum and heritage centers, and natural resources like mountain, beaches and sun. Intangible includes endorsing the cultural events and festivals and selling atmosphere.

Allee, J & Kotler, N (2011) says cultural very beneficial from both economic and social impact. It creates the income in the business by several means. With the increase in local production, the local community can not only embrace their culture but also boosts their economy, so it is economically valuable for both destinations and the societies that reside in them. Therefore, with this tourism, the tourist immersed the local activities such as rituals and festivals (Singh, T 2011). Additionally, this is an opportunity for faithful social and cultural exchange between local people and visitors from all around. Leading the better overall infrastructure and living atmosphere for both the host country and tourist, it also promotes communication and integration (Buhalis, D 2003).

It helps to reinforce and establish identity by preserving cultural and historical heritage and enhancing local and national pride (Hawkins, D. E 2005). It also keeps the tradition alive. So, cultural tourism demonstrates the positive images of the country internationally. European Commission (2002) urged that individuals incline to visit galleries and museums abroad as regularly as they do at their home countries. However, Richard (2007) defines this saying: the cultural tourism and cultural visit at home are different. Therefore, cultural tourism is described as the genuine way of exploring around by which traveller can understand and become familiar with way of life. Moreover, the history of a specific location can be accompanied by a range of cultural factors (Senge, P. 2006). These factors may include the food, entertainment, architecture, drink, hand crafted and manufactured products or every element representing features of way of life in a specific destination.

More recently, as a form of cultural tourism, the creative tourism is popular. It involves active participation of visitors in the cultural of host countries. Countries like the United Kingdom, Austria, Jamaica, France, the Bahamas, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, and South Korea has creative tourism’s popularity( Olsen et al 2013). Harill, R (2016) articulates that trips are the basic requirements of modern life. Busy life style of an individual needs peaceful and leisurely ways destinations. This is a medicine of complex medical and mental illness, so nothing can replenish comfortable tourism. People are motivated on tourism as people believe in seeing things with their eyes and fulfilling curiosity. hunger for natural-beauty can be gratified. Intercultural contacts and destinations can make individual broadminded, tolerant and encourages people to appreciate their economic condition, culture, manners, custom and speech of different destinations.

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