Premarital Sex And Abortion As The Result Of Globalization On Malaysia
Nowadays, the world has become globalization with the development and the evolution of times. Globalization means the worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration.
Globalization implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdependent world with free transfer of capital, goods, and services across national frontiers.
The existence of globalization in Malaysia is easy because people ideology can easily be affected as they had been educated since young to follow the trend, keep yourself updated to the latest trend of the world so as the development of country can carry on smoothly. So the people will follow the trend from overseas country no matter its legal setting. As example the actions of primarital sex and abortion were started from western country and slowly transfer into Malaysia. These two actions are considered immoral cultural, but it still carried out by the people as the era was changing and the laws are also changing. Should globalization be blamed for the transfer of immoral cultural?
Premarital sex is defined as the sexual activity happens among the persons who are unmarried. It started during the 1960s, when sex education was not exposed to the youngsters.
Premarital sex is also counted as a past immoral culture which the old generation people will think that premarital sex is wrong but in this generation, people had changed their public opinion that premarital sex might increase body immunity.
As nowadays technology are developed, youngsters who are under the exposure of sex do not know what is right and what is wrong. They can easily get to know what is sex through their peers or their seniors and they can further explore on social media. After they found out what is sex, they would want to try out what is sex during their age. So, the main cause of premarital sex shall be their curiousity towards sex.
Some of the Asian countries are encouraged to have sexual education to reduce the sexual-related social problems among teenagers nowadays. According to the research conducted by (Mutalip,Syairah Mohamed and Ruzianisra 2012), almost half (49.3%) of the respondents agreed that sexual education might help to overcome the social illness among school teenagers. Besides, a large number (77.6%) of respondents also agreed that this module should be incorporated with other core subjects compared to the feedback received on the implementation of this module on its own (28.9%).
Youngsters can research more about sex through social media to fulfill their curiousity. According to (Fradd, 2019), nine out of tenboys and six out of ten girls are exposed to pornography before the age of 18. As we can see, social media is very powerful and very high linkage to the youngsters which they can easily get influenced through what had exposed to them.
In some European countries, premarital sex is very normal unlike in Asian countries. According to the statistic at 2011 from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD), it shows that the percent of couples aged 20 to 34 years old cohabiting for the countries under OECD. The highest percentage was 60% and above which falls under Sweden.
Two years after the statistic by OECD is out, Pew Research Center came out with another new statistics which is the percent saying sex between unmarried adults morally unacceptable (for selected countries). Most of the Asian countries were in the top of lists which include Indonesia (75% above), Pakistan (75% above), etc.
Abortion is an action of removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death, it also an criminal act of ending another individual human being’s life. Based on Malaysian Penal Code sections 312 -315 covers abortion had originally taken from the Indian Penal code 1871 which made abortion totally illegal. In year 1971, an amendment made it legal to save the life of the woman. There are three types of abortions, spontaneous abortion, medical abortion and induced abortion.
Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage lets the pregnancy termination due to natural happenings causes incorrect replication of chromosomes or environmental factors for accidental trauma. Medical abortion (therapeutic), a termination of pregnancy based on medical indications is as listed: To save the life of the pregnant woman, to preserve the woman’s physical or mental health and to prevent delivery of a fetus detected to have serious defects.
Induced abortion is abortion that has been caused by deliberate human action, usually voluntarily due to desire to delay or end childbearing due to the concern of interruption of work or education. Financial issues or relationship instability also causes induced abortion. Induced abortion is usually indirectly caused by the lack of access to contraceptives and/or general knowledge of pregnancy.
The third type of abortion is medical abortion. In medical abortion, there are two different methods, chemical abortion and surgical abortion.
In medical abortion, women would digest a pill or a set of pills to end their pregnancy. This usually happens during the early stages of pregnancy which is within the first 3 months. Agents commonly used in the pills include mifepristone and prostaglandins.
The second metod which is surgical abortion uses vacuum aspiration (manual or electronic – using electronic suction) within the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. If no complications arise, it can be done in a one day procedure. Dilatation and curettage (D&C) is done between the 15th and 24th week of pregnancy. D&C is a procedure to remove tissue from inside the uterus. It is to clear the uterus lining after abortion has occured. Intact dilatation and extraction (partial-birth abortion) are for advanced, third trimester pregnancy.
Complications of induced abortion is the residual effect after abortion, it based on the body condition of the woman. There may have laceration to the cervix, perforation of the uterus, excessive bleeding, infection to the reproductive organs, sterility, death (due to anesthetic complications, severe bleeding or uncontrolled infection).
As the previous information showed, abortion had took place around the world. Legal abortions are now a relatively recent phenomenon which is the mid-to-late 20th century saw a wave of amendments to criminal codes, where most countries spell out exceptions under which induced abortion is not subject to penalties.
Evidence that unsafe abortion is a pressing public health concern and a preventable cause of ill-health and death often plays an important role in advocacy for reform. The early reformation started in the early-to-mid 1950s in Soviet Bloc and satellite states across subregions of Europe and Asia. In the 1960s and 1970s, reform extended to much of the developed world and some developing countries. By the mid-1980s, abortions were broadly legal throughout most of the Europe and in Northern America.
Many nations—especially former colonies with inherited penal codes—continue to add exceptions to penal codes or pass separate laws to regulate abortion. Countries that lift restrictions do so through a wide array of paths. Although the abortion are illegal, but it can sace woman life, the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy worldwide, as well as trends since 1990, as women and couples increasingly want smaller families and there are some issues related to induced abortion.
For years, induced abortion has initiated many public debates and concern from the ethical, moral, philosophical, biological, religious and legal aspects. The public opinions on induced abortion are divided into two main groups, pro-choice group and pro-life group. Pro-choice group, who supports abortion as a mean of allowing women to make their own reproductive decisions. While pro-life group, who is against abortion and regards it as a cruel form of murdering a fetus which has the right to live.
There are research had estimating abortion at the global level calls for a different approach. The researchers developed a statistical model that combined all available national-level estimates recently with information on factors known to be linked to abortion incidence to “fill in the blanks” where the direct information is missing which were Data and Methods Appendix. These estimates are for each five-year period from 1990 through 2014, at the global level, as well as the regional and subregional levels. This approach enables assessment of changes over the past 25 years and of variation across regions.
We also presented data from a related model that incorporates factors known to influence abortion safety. The results, at global, regional and subregional levels, distribute annual abortions as of 2010–2014 into three categories: safe, less safe and least safe. Globally, the estimated annual number of abortions increased by 5.7 million—or 11%—between 1990–1994 and 2010–2014, from 50.2 million to 55.9 million. The number of women of reproductive age increased much more (40% globally).
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