Origins Of Artificial Intelligence And Its Implementation In Facebook

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Definition

“Artificial intelligence means simulation of human elements by machines/ computers, where they acquire information (learning), process it to reach reasonable conclusions (action). It leverages various technologies like machine/deep learning, vision, Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), robots, or autonomous machines, etc, for delivering better results.” (Artificial Intelligence Transforming Healthcare Landscape, 2019)Rossum’s Universal Robots (R.U.R.) (1920)

Karel Čapek, a Czeck writer published a science fiction play named Rossumovi Univerzální Roboti (Rossum’s Universal Robots). This play was about a factory that created artificial people that were more like clones than robots. These clones used to work for the humans and later on there happened a robot rebellion which lead to the extinction of the human race. (A Short History of Artificial Intelligence, 2018)

The Alan Turing Test (1950)

“Alan Turing was born on 23th June 1912 in London. He is widely known, because of cracking the encrypted the code of the enigma, which were used from Nazi Germany to communicate. Alan Turing’s study also led to his theory of computation, which deals about how efficiently problems can be solved. He presented his idea in the model of the Turing machine, which is today still a popular term in Computer Science. The Turing machine is an abstract machine, which can, despite the model’s simplicity, construct any algorithms logic.

Some years after the end of World War 2, Turing introduced his widely known Turing Test, which was an attempt to define machines intelligent. The idea behind the test was that if a machine (A) and a person (B) can communicate through natural language and a second person (C), a so-called elevator, cannot detect which of the communicators (A or B) is the machine then the machine is called intelligent.

In the summer of 1956, scientists gather for a conference at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. They believe that aspects of learning as well as other characteristics of human intelligence can be simulated by machines. The programmer John McCarthy proposes calling this ‘artificial intelligence.’ The world’s first AI program, ‘Logic Theorist’ — which manages to prove several dozen mathematical theorems and data is also written during the conference.” (A Short History of Artificial Intelligence, 2018)

Unimate (1961)

“The first industrial robot, Unimate, went to work at GM replacing humans on the assembly line.” (A Short History of Artificial Intelligence, 2018)

ELIZA and Shakey (1966)

In 1966, The German-American computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology invents a computer program that communicates with humans called Eliza.

In the same year, Shakey-the first electronic person from Stanford was built. It was a general purpose mobile robot that reasons about its own actions. (A Short History of Artificial Intelligence, 2018) (Shakey the robot, n.d.)

The first AI Winter (1974)

It was the time when the British government had cut off exploratory research and people had started losing interest in AI. (A Short History of Artificial Intelligence, 2018)

Expert Systems (1980’s)

“After the first AI Winter, Artificial Intelligence came back in a form of so-called “expert systems”.Expert systems are programs that answer questions and solve problems in a specific domain. They emulate an expert in a specific branch and solve problems by rules. There are two types of engines in expert systems: First, there is the knowledge engine, which represents facts and rules about a specific topic. Second, there is the inference engine, which applies the rules and facts from the knowledge engine to new facts.” (A Short History of Artificial Intelligence, 2018)

The second AI Winter (early 90s)

“The second AI Winter came in the early 90s after a series of financial setbacks. The fall of expert systems and hardware companies who suffered through desktop computers built by Apple and IBM led again to decreasing AI interest from the investors.” (A Short History of Artificial Intelligence, 2018)

Deep Blue (1997)

The AI based chess computer ‘Deep Blue’ had defeated the world chess champion, Garry Kasporav in a tournament. This had been considered as a historic success. (Dr Marsden, 2017)

AiBO 1999

“Sony launched its first consumer robot pet dog AiBO with skills and personality that develop over time.” (Dr Marsden, 2017)

ROOMBA 2002

“The first mass produced autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner from iRobot learned to navigate and clean homes.” (Dr Marsden, 2017)

Siri and Watson (2011)

“Apple integrated Siri, an intelligent virtual assistant with a voice interface into iPhone 4S. Also, IBM’s question answering computer Watson won the first place on popular television quiz show Jeopardy.” (Dr Marsden, 2017)

Alexa and Eugene (2014)

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“Eugene Goostman, a chatbot passed the Turing test with a third of judges believing Eugene is human. Amazon launched Alexa, an intelligent virtual assistant with a voice interface that completes shopping tasks.” (Dr Marsden, 2017)

Tay (2016)

“Microsoft’s chatbot Tay goes rogue on social media making inflammatory and offensive racist comments.” (Dr Marsden, 2017)

AlphaGo (2017)

Google’s A.I AlphaGo beats world champion Ke Jie in the complex board game of Go, notable for its vast number of possible positions. (Dr Marsden, 2017)

Siemens

“Siemens is one of the world’s top artificial intelligence companies that focuses on the areas of energy, electrification, digitization, and automation. The company is also one of the largest producers of resource-saving and energy efficient technologies and a leading provider of devices and systems for medical diagnosis, power generation, and transmission. Siemens has been consistently reaping the benefits of potential offered by artificial intelligence with new services offering that allow enterprises to boost their efficiency and productivity. Today, the company has more than 200 experts working in neural networks and data analytics with a current focus on areas such as deep learning and reinforcement learning. Siemens is using artificial intelligence to optimize industrial facilities for applications such as electric motors, energy distribution, and rail technology.” (Top 10 Artificial Intelligence Companies in the World 2018, 2018)

Health

“Siemens Healthineers has a long history of AI-enriched solutions. AI-Rad Companion is a new dedicated software platform that brings artificial intelligence (AI) to medical imaging. Its first application, AI-Rad Companion Chest CT, automatically performs measurements, prepares results for reports, highlights and characterizes anatomies and abnormalities and in addition to that even creates references with risk scores and reference values. The results may eliminate the step of manual image post-processing on an advanced visualisation device and, therefore, increase the accuracy in interpretation and reporting.” (Siemens Healthineers introduces AI-Rad Companion Chest CT as first application based on its new AI-Rad Companion platform, 2018)

Facebook

Facebook is one of the major social media websites using Artificial intelligence for to make the interface easier to use and to benefit the end users.

The 4 major ways Facebook uses Artificial intelligence is as listed below:

Textual analysis

“Facebook uses a tool called DeepText developed by them to extract meaning from words we post by learning to analyze them contextually. Neural networks analyze the relationship between words to understand how their meaning changes depending on other words around them. Because this is semi-unsupervised learning, the algorithms do not necessarily have reference data – for example a dictionary – explaining the meaning of every word. Instead, it learns for itself based on how words are used.” (Marr, 2016)

“This means that it won’t be tripped up by variations in spelling, slang or idiosyncrasies of language use. In fact, Facebook say the technology is “language agnostic” – due to the way it assigns labels to words, it can easily switch between working across different human languages and apply what it has learned from one to another. At present the tool is used to direct people towards products they may want to purchase based on conversations they are having.” (Marr, 2016)

Facial recognition

“Facebook uses a DL application called DeepFace to teach it to recognize people in photos. It says that its most advanced image recognition tool is more successful than humans in recognizing whether two different images are of the same person or not – with DeepFace scoring a 97% success rate compared to humans with 96%.” (Marr, 2016)

Targeted advertising

“Facebook uses deep neural networks – the foundation stones of deep learning – to decide which adverts to show to which users. This has always been the cornerstone of its business, but by tasking machines themselves to find out as much as they can about us, and to cluster us together in the most insightful ways when serving us ads, it hopes to maintain a competitive edge against other high-tech competitors such as Google who are fighting for supremacy of the same market.” (Marr, 2016)

Designing AI applications

“Facebook has even decided that the task of deciding which processes can be improved by AI and Deep Learning can be handled by machines. A system called Flow has been implemented which uses Deep Learning analysis to run simulations of 300,000 machine learning models every month, to allow engineers to test ideas and pinpoint opportunities for efficiency.” (Marr, 2016)

How has it helped

  • Facebook created an AI-based map of Africa to help with the hunger crisis relief.
  • To understand the end users better in order to provide better recommendations based on personal choices.
  • To help users communicate with the translators present.
  • To provide job opportunities in AI

How can AI transform business

“Indian firms across diverse sectors such as healthcare, education, auto, banking and retail are increasingly tapping AI to transform their businesses. ICICI Bank, for instance, has been experimenting with robotics and AI, through which their email bot sorts out customer and distributor emails on the status of transactions and other similar things, which has helped the bank reduce its customer response time.

Most big e-commerce companies like Amazon India are exploring AI solutions to cut costs and overheads, and also to make their platform superior, intuitive and smart. For instance, AI is capable of learning the latest fashion trends by analysing customers’ social media feeds, and can assist e-commerce firms in improving search results and recommendations.

AI has been effectively helping businesses decode patterns in their customers’ online behaviour and predict the probability of a product return. Most of them are resorting to customer segmentation—leveraging customer data to create specific clusters of customers with shared attributes. This allows them to boost customer loyalty by creating more personalized, relevant marketing messages. Companies such as Flipkart have already adopted this approach to effectively gauge a customer’s propensity to return a product, resulting in cost optimization. It also helps in optimizing logistics and ranking vendors based on their reputation.

Customers will continue to rely on AI to help them find and engage with businesses and, on the other hand, firms will have to rely on AI to support and service those customers. Also, employees are going to be more dependent on this technology to perform their work on a daily basis. As these systems take a more central role in the business world, every modern enterprise will need an AI strategy. When combined and designed with the consumer in mind, AI technologies can deliver solutions that drive customer loyalty, engagement, consumption and satisfaction. It is only a matter of time before companies worldwide and across sectors wake up to the real potential of AI.” (The growing role of artificial intelligence in business, 2017).

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