Origin and Domestication of Yellow Corn and Bread Making

1686 (4 pages)
Download for Free
Important: This sample is for inspiration and reference only

Table of contents

The starting place and growing of yellow corn has been a problem in evolution; even though maximum scientists accept as true with the crop originated from Mexico, other scientists have additionally proposed multiple- origins of the crop; based totally on studies on chromosome knob positions in maize from South and valuable America (Hernandez, 2009).

Archeological findings of fossil maize in Mexico have additionally supplied a few evidence of the domestication of maize from teosinte. Pollen grains excavated from the coastal plains of Veracruz, Mexico, demonstrate maize cultivation considering 5000 years ago (Jensen, L 2012).

The second oldest fossils maize had been observed at the San Marcos Cave close to Tehuacán, Puebla, also dated by accelerator mass spectrometry to be seven centuries younger (5500 y. b. p.) (long et al., 1989) but in 2001 pollen grains excavated from Tabasco, Mexico, propose that maize cultivation befell 1000 -2000 years in advance than the 7000 years ago previously normal (Sluyter and Dominguez, 2005). Genetic and botanical facts available identifies teosinte (Zea mays spp. parviglumis) as the progenitor of the contemporary maize plant (Zea mays L.) (Hernandez, 2009). This has additionally been debatable due to the huge morphological variations among the two vegetation, particularly, in the woman inflorescence.

Wang et al. (2010) reported that the liberation of the kernel from hardened case is the result of a single gen and that modest genetic modifications in single genes can result in dramatic adjustments in phenotype throughout domestication and evolution. A change inside the amino acid series can result in a dramatic trade as observed within the cutting-edge maize.

In Ghana, maize is grown in all the ten regions of the country and all of the ecological zones from the Coastal savanna through the woodland and forest savanna transitional quarter to the Guinea savanna and Sudan savanna with the wooded area savanna transitional quarter being the highest generating region. The crop is also grown underneath an extensive range of conditions starting from soil type, soil fertility, moisture degree, temperature and cultural practice (Abdulai et al., 2007).

Bread Making

In Ghana, maximum bakery industries produce bread by employing the following key steps: selection and weighing of substances, mixing the substances, stretching of dough, portioning of dough, proofing, and baking. At the combination, proofing and baking steps, dough is subjected to various physical and chemical modifications which include shear and huge extensional deformations. Those modifications to the dough are impacted through temperature and water hydration (Rosell, 2011). The molecular structure of bread dough is specifically made of proteins which are known as Gluten (Rosell, 2011).

Breads had been around for decades and remain component and parcel of the human diet. Bread making remains an art due to the fact bread quality relies upon at the competencies of the baker when made by means of hand. In enterprise, blending dough by ‘baker’s experience’ is an imperative part of the bread production methods. Until the product is baked; the pleasant of the flour used stays as unsure as the exceptional of the crumb inside the crust. Mixing the dough underneath the vacuum brings about breads of undesirable high-quality (Baker and Mize, 1941). As a result, dough needs to incorporate air bubbles even if not visible to the bare eye. The life of bubbles has been showed from micro tomography research by means of Bellido et al. (2006).

An analysis of the baking procedure tells us that breads ought to incorporate outdoors cells. All through proofing, carbon dioxide—mass-produced by using yeast or different leavening marketers—migrates to bubbles present within the dough and the dough expands, generally called ‘dough upward thrust’ in baking. Similarly, expansion of the bubbles takes place in the oven when the starch gelatinizes and imparts solidity to the structure. The gasoline bubbles rupture and stress inside equilibrates with that of the environment. If bubble shape does not equilibrate with the atmosphere, then the bread collapses whilst taken out of the oven. The mechanistic view is that after gasoline bubbles amplify, dough strain-hardens the strong layer will become increasingly more inflexible as it deforms, restricting growth and coalescence of bubbles. This gives greater time for the gasoline to distribute for the duration of the dough so bubbles increase more frivolously. As such, premature coalescence of bubbles is considered detrimental to loaf quantity (Bloksma, 1990).

Bread has been a dietary staple for lots communities across the centuries, Bread making goes returned to the technology in records when development of civilization became commenced.

No time to compare samples?
Hire a Writer

✓Full confidentiality ✓No hidden charges ✓No plagiarism

Historically at about 8000 BC the grinding stone changed into utilized in Egypt to grind grains including wheat (Rosell, 2011). Modern-day breads inclusive of the chapattis and tortillas from India and Mexico respectively, resemble the breads mass-produced in that technology. From 5000 to 3700 BC bread have become staple meals and changed into exported to other cultures from Egypt all through cross continental change alongside the Nile (Rosell, 2011).

The baking enterprise in Germany had been the primary to bake bread commercially using yeast, therefore influencing consistency in taste and visible enchantment of bread (Rosell, 2011). Currently artificial preservatives, emulsifiers, and different chemical components are being used to improve dough and soften texture of baked bread and to improve 2 the shelf lifestyles of breads.

The shelf life of bread is generally between 2 to 5 days (Smith et al., 2004). For this reason, the art of bread making although a vintage ability has regularly progressed via a long time. Every step in the system from selection and preparation of the ingredients and actual processing together with the combination and baking of the loaf is managed. In bread making, commonplace components used are flour (typically wheat flour), salt, yeast and water.

It is endorsed that at least 70% wheat flour ought to be utilized in leavened breads to acquire a great upward thrust during proofing of bread (Eriksson, 2013). Unleavened breads are made from the equal substances and principles as defined above but without yeast yielding a dough that after baked produces crisp flat bread, examples being chapattis, matzos and tortillas (Eriksson, 2013).

Corn Bread

Corn bread, one of the most dishes got its begin generations in the past with the cultivation of corn with the aid of the Native American people. Due to the fact that the intake of corn has seen an astronomical upward push. For humans in Ghana, corn is easily to be had and gives nourishment for all contributors of the family through numerous forms. Cornbread itself is going by means of exceptional names depending on the human beings and method in which it was cooked and ate up (Barrel 2011).

At first, cornbread was known as ‘Appone’ and ‘Suppone’ by using local Americans. This early version of cornbread contained only four simple elements and turned into a staple for lots. The shortage of substances like flour and sugar ensured the relevance of this cornmeal bread, known as corn pone, as time exceeded, elements that had previously been unattainable had been available for human beings. Because of this, cornbread changed into varied to encompass ingredients like flour, eggs, baking soda, and buttermilk. This “second generation” cornmeal bread is what most people recognised now as cornbread (Steve Johnson 2011).

Variations include recipes like candy cornbread, Mexican Cornbread, and Cornbread Salad. These differing recipes display how various the peoples flavor has become, as people have merged their traditional fare with that of their new fatherland. The present day cultural significance of cornbread is some distance one of a kind than it turned into a hundred years ago.

The Yellow Corn Bread -a Few Standards

For a bread to be “perfect”, it ought to fulfill numerous criteria. In the surveys conducted by (Bugge et al., 2010), the respondents had been requested to specify their personal standards whilst choosing what sort of bread to devour. Sensory (e.g. flavor and freshness) and dietary components (e.g. excessive in complete grains, low in sugar, salt, fat and additives) had been the maximum commonly noted standards, however a low fee and environmental factors (e.g. use of organic substances and local production) were additionally emphasised as vital characteristics (Bugge et al., 2008). Those criteria, which are also recognized by way of others (Bakke & Vickers, 2007), represent statistics this is critical to take into consideration whilst we now are to set the standards for the appropriate bread with the aid of the use of yellow corn to supply bread.

Health Standards

Current research indicates that, the bread ought to contain fairly much complete grains. Further to growth the amount of both dietary fiber and antioxidants within the diet, this can, in contrast to refined, energy-rich flours, make contributions within the decreasing of the strength density of the bread. If it additionally encompasses much water, the electricity density will drop similarly. The recipes quantity of sugar, salt and fat should also be managed and limited. Inside the case of fats, grains are better in unsaturated than saturated fatty acids (Cordain, 1999).

Sensory Standards of Bread

(Bugge et al, 2008) opines that eighty percent (80%) of the people still emphasize taste and sensory splendor because the most essential first-rate standards of breads, there may be a reason why the intake of whole meal flour is lower than advocated – merchandise made with subtle wheat taste right. further, humans generally tend to prefer merchandise which comprise extra salt than encouraged. often, breads made to flavour good are low in complete grains and excessive in salt, and most wholesome breads do no longer flavour that proper. They may for example be dry and with a high density (Bakke & Vickers, 2007).

Those points are illustrating the importance, and task, of developing breads which are wholesome and right tasting at the identical time (Dewettinck et al., 2008). But, factors that have an effect on both flavour and health may modify this poor relation. Such elements can be the amount of yeast, water and introduced substances like seeds and nuts. Fermentation approach and baking time may also affect each the health and taste residences of breads (Meyer, 2009).

Important sensory standards for the appropriate bread will be; texture (now not too compact), look (e.g. the shade; a roasty, golden colour serves as a trademark of a breads wholesomeness), and no longer least the taste the bread has to flavor good.

You can receive your plagiarism free paper on any topic in 3 hours!

*minimum deadline

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below

Copy to Clipboard
Origin and Domestication of Yellow Corn and Bread Making. (2021, February 10). WritingBros. Retrieved April 22, 2024, from https://writingbros.com/essay-examples/origin-and-domestication-of-yellow-corn-and-bread-making/
“Origin and Domestication of Yellow Corn and Bread Making.” WritingBros, 10 Feb. 2021, writingbros.com/essay-examples/origin-and-domestication-of-yellow-corn-and-bread-making/
Origin and Domestication of Yellow Corn and Bread Making. [online]. Available at: <https://writingbros.com/essay-examples/origin-and-domestication-of-yellow-corn-and-bread-making/> [Accessed 22 Apr. 2024].
Origin and Domestication of Yellow Corn and Bread Making [Internet]. WritingBros. 2021 Feb 10 [cited 2024 Apr 22]. Available from: https://writingbros.com/essay-examples/origin-and-domestication-of-yellow-corn-and-bread-making/
Copy to Clipboard

Need writing help?

You can always rely on us no matter what type of paper you need

Order My Paper

*No hidden charges