Individual And Group Behaviour In Organizations

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The research paper throws light on a peculiar sect of attitudes which is narcissism. As members of an organization who portray destructive narcissistic behaviour find their way to the top level of management the organizational atmosphere culture and attitude shifts due to unethical decisions made. The display of Narcissist attitudes has a both a negative and positive impact. The research paper not only deals with the different types of narcissism such as healthy, extraordinary, shy, destructive, pathological, psychotic and normal,it also draws a model highlighting factors that may offer organizational resistance to destructive arrogant narcissism.

Analysis: “Performance is the key to organizational success. Employees who perceive their work environments as supportive tend to hold favourable attitudes toward their employment and exceed minimum job requirements. Those holding an opposite view perform less favourably (Rhoades and Eisenberger 2002; Gibney et al. 2009)” Beginning the research article with this theory it is clear that the paper revolves around the impact of attitudes in an organization. To that narcissism is an extreme form of attitude shown by which the atmosphere of the company shifts and most often it is for the worse.

The authors open a window into the mind of an extraordinary narcissist labelled “imposter-leaders” they attain leadership as a means of self-gratification and aggrandizement. They bring out methods of leadership within an organization such as "divide and rule”, employee pliant sycophants, provide false performance reports, and develop a "sole proprietary”. This most definitely reflects on the organizational behaviour of the company as a whole. This narcissistic attitude can be pathological in nature and can be further subdivided into arrogant, shy and psychopathic. Each one of the above mentioned types have distinct characteristics but the common ground they share is the immense negative impact that they create. Arrogant narcissism is the one that comes to mind when the word is said out allowed, this group is characterised by striking grandiosity, a sense of superiority, self-importance and a perfectionist. Their attitude is that of boastfulness, pretentiousness and being self-centred hence this is the type which is most often generalised and the word narcissist is associated with all the mentioned characteristics. Whereas shy narcissism is on the other end of the spectrum where individuals have created a sense of low self-efficacy and self-worth. This type is as dangerous within an organization as an arrogant narcissist as they are dependent on employees and in the morbid environment they create in a workspace are willing to let others do their work and care for them. Their excessive dependency, shame and self-criticism impair executive functioning.

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The last type – psychotic narcissism roots from suppression of deeply embedded childhood feelings of being despised or worthless. The need to defend ones pride and arrogance are part and parcel of this type of narcissism. They are hypersensitive resulting in mood swings hence their behaviour cannot be predicted making them volatile elements in an organization. Bringing in the crux of the paper after introducing the personality and attitude of a narcissist, the authors introduce the concept of organizational resistance which is the countervailing influence individuals and groups can have over destructive arrogant narcissistic leadership. This is divided into segments which are virtual community, proximity, social contagion, actor anxiety, double-loop learning and mindfulness. Each of these factors plays a vital role in organizational resistance like the virtual community being leveraged to resist destructive influences or social contagion which stats that an arrogant organization self-implodes through the disorder it creates of negative feelings and spreads it through the organization like influenza which crept in rendering the workspace hostile. It then like any deadly virus imbeds itself in the culture of the organization. Mindfulness is the most relatable factor to resisting destructive behaviour it involves using one’s ability to evaluate internal and external realistically and accurately in a way that promotes formation of significant ideas. The positive impact created mindfulness is that of self-control and lowered stress levels make it in an integral factor in resistance. Conclusion:The evaluation and identification of this behaviour is of utmost importance and this is highlighted in the paper with specific mention the “Enrons”. The role of technology and social media must be taken into considerations as this destructive negative impact can be tenfold. The model created illustrates the resistance pattern and occurrence within an organization also the factors that contribute to it. The best example of the impact of destructive narcissistic behaviour in top level management leading to the downfall of the entire organization will be of the Enron Scandal. The CEO of Enron displayed traits of narcissistic behaviour as he was aggressive, intelligent and possessed exemplary leadership qualities which was incremental in creating a culture of aggression and incentivised competition in the organisation.

The concept of dual leadership dates back to 500BC during the Spartan time where two hereditary kings would rule the city. They would be part of the council that would appoint either of the two leaders, commander of the army. Even then the author doesn’t deny the lack of conflict but states that it was part of the characteristic of this type of leadership furthermore according to Herodotus was part of the traditional fabric of Spartan life. The uniqueness of leadership couples is highlighted a many types of partnership in which leadership is shared. The two king also called two captain leadership are known to create a management impasse which is creatively stated by the author as turning the ‘Dual’ into ‘Duel’ which is a battle for leadership. The dynamic nature of dual leadership makes it a unique problem solving technique. A common example can be explored out at sea meaning the leadership structure of the captain and the chief engineer. Cruise ships have a complicated yet effective structure where there is rarely any conflict between the two as they are focused on separate tasks. Even if this is established as a conflict free sharing of authority, the chief purser and the captain have several conflicts and to avoid this the cruise lines introduced a new position of hotel manager. This was brought about to neutralize power thus becoming a conflict solving technique.

The concept of neutralizing was also seen in the leadership theory of Kerr and Jernier. As the ship leaves the port the captain would enjoy full authority but when the hotel manager was introduced there was a new problem that arose which was tackled by the addition of shore operations that played the role of a mediator. Thus the position of the captain was curtailed to safety and navigation of the ship. In today’s time the role of the hotel manager and the captain have merged into one as a captain now has a background of a hotel manager. The working of the arts organization forms the crux of the article as a museum follows a system which separates the artistic and business side of its operations. It is an anomaly when the two skill set are found in a single person hence the distinct nature of the activities deems the need for two individuals with separate skills to man the job rolls. The two directors carry out two separate tasks one of overseeing the business and the other of the mission. The Dutch art museums are a primal example of the hierarchal management agreement in present day situations. The team of three works with a structure of one team leader and two member who fall under dual leadership. During these changes there was bound to be a build-up of tension and the author recognizes the loss in organization when the captains quit out of frustration. Another problem identified through this article is the interference of an external factor in Dutch museums which by virtue of being a non-profit government organization is controlled by the municipalities who sit as the board of directors and have a say in the long term investments and plans of the organization though the director has more knowledge about the subject. Due to this a struggle for power is never far behind in situations of conflicting interest between the two. In cases of financial trouble boards have been known to appoint a business director to bring into play the neutralising effect. Conclusion:The author brings to notice the vital note that, this concept is a temporary arrangement that ties the hands of a director. The impact of dual leadership is one where the organization benefits from the expertise of two experienced and skilled individuals who excel at their field which kick in during period of crisis.

The attitudes of the two leaders must enable cooperation and coordination in order for this system to be effective. “Gronn’s qualitative study of leadership explores the special kind of leadership. With an apt example of married couple running a business he elaborates on the concept. But it is also noted that this form of leadership may not always be legal. If there is a proper divided framework within an organization with clearly defined job roles it is easier to implement this dual leadership concept during troubled times. My Learning:From the above article I’ve learnt that leadership styles are varied and can be implemented according to the nature of the organization. Mostly importantly the attitude of these leaders as they share their power and responsibility with another individual and how it can be engaged to neutralise power or assist in times of crisis. Vocational Decision Making among Women: Implications for Organizational BehaviourAuthor(s): Arthur P. Brief, Mary van Sell and Ramon J. AldagSource: The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 4, No. 4 (Oct. , 1979), pp. 521-530Published by: Academy of ManagementSummary:The research article is a cumulative of various theories projected to arrive at a consensus to what goes on when a woman decides to accept a job role forgoing her traditional role and how this reflects on her behaviour in an organization. The various aspects considered to understand the cognition of vocational decision making are anticipatory socialization, personality, interest, values, perceived capacities, perceived opportunities, perceived cost, self-concept, job choice and instrumentality. The paper based in 1979 though from a completely different time period not only highlights the decision making thought process of that time but shows us the base on which most of the theories regarding gender attitudes today take root from. Analysis:The article begins with the concept of anticipatory socialization which encompasses the time before an individual enters a work organization, this is when expectations are created towards the impending job and making the decision to work. Highlighting the difference between men and women from set standards which were that men have been socialized to anticipate working for most of their life and women to the contrary socialized to anticipate the role of a mother or a wife. This pre-set notion impacted the decision making process to a large extent as it dated back to centuries where this was the social norm being followed. The authors bring in various concepts which impact the job selection process and how they differ from one another thus impacting behaviour and attitude towards the work place.

The Personality theory by Holland [1959] which argues that people select their occupation according to their personality structure. When it comes to the personality aspects it says that several authors have argued on how men are oriented towards advancement and achievement whereas women towards the social aspects of work which is a direct indicator of their attitude in an organization. Values are a silent driving force when it comes to vocational decision making as they are cultivated over a long period of time according to Dublin, Hedley, and Taveggia [1976]the work attachments of males and females are markedly different along certain dimensions and that persons who see their work as a central life interest have positive attachments to work whereas persons who see their work otherwise have negative attachments to work. Perceiveed capabilities is a vital factor as the attitude of the employees can be derived from what they perceive they can accomplish. The study conducted by Leventhal & Lane, 1970; Schwartz & Clausen, 1970 stated that women are less confident about their capabilities than men which resulted in avoidance in work assignments which were well within their capabilities and “errors” in decisions making ensued. During the period of time when the article was published the women in the workforce were still a small number which meant there was a lack of role models within the industry which led to the perception that opportunity was minimum. This influenced their entry and success which inversely effected their perception which plays a role in their engagement within the organization.

The interesting fact is that some evidence point to the fact that women who choose careers over homemaking use their fathers as role models [Oliver, 1975]. Conclusion:The authors thoroughly immerse the reader into the various theories of the time and relating it to the study of employment decision makingand how they seek to arrive at a solution in a rational thought process analysing various factors which impact the decisionmaking processin the female gender. This research was conducted when the traditional woman embarked on the change. The theories stated are highly relatable and create a platform for modern day research and thought. Though several concepts are overlapping repeating the same point, they are looked at from a different angle. The time period of the paper displays social norms in relation to the input within an organization which impacted to the attitudes which it. My learning:From the timeline not only did I learn about the differences in the past also how much the structure has changed. I noted the several salient factors that go behind making a decision about employment. It also made me understand through the study how aspects such as perceived capabilities influence a person’s attitude and behaviour within an organization. The ability to relate these concepts to my personal decision making made it simple to grasp the vocational decision making and the change from 1979 to 2018.

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