History and Creation of Quantum Mechanics

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Toward the start of this century people who work to find information trust that every basic rule were significant to everything in nature. Be that as it may, examined the modest world. From Molecules, Electrons, and light waves. This does not chase after the standard guidelines. Since physicists such as Nickel Bohr, and Albert Einstein.

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How it all began was with the equation known as Rayleigh-jeans law. It's predicted that the higher the amount, the higher the radiation. Physicists tested an experiment, the results were that the rate of the light got into an UltraViolet range. But they then tested the light rate to be higher and the law didn't fit the experiment anymore. Black bodies absorb electromagnetic radiation. So when black bodies have an intensity based on the temperature the light would be intense at a certain amount. When the amount increases the intensity drops. Planck's law states that if electromagnetic energy takes the form of tiny discrete packets. These packets are called Quanta. The energy in each Quanta is equal to the frequency of the light times a very small number that is called Planck's constant that equals h. Einstein argued that light energy travels in packets called photons which would make light behave like a particle. In 1887 a physicist named by Heinrich Rudolf created the photoelectric effect. Which is what happens when you shine a beam of light on a metal plate. Those electrons leave the metal plate and hit a nearby collector, creating a current. Wave theory says that when a light wave hits an electron it exerts a force on the electron that ejects from the metal. The increase of intensity of light, increases the strength of electric field that hits the electrons. Particle theory is when electrons get injected into metal when hit by individual photons. The photon energy goes to the electron that pops out of the metal. Which leads to the photon being destroyed. Work function has a photon that has less energy than the work function. The electron Won't Go Anywhere But if more than the same energy of the photon will be used to tear the electron away from the metal and the rest will give the electron kinetic energy. Some electrons will be attracted to the metal than others. So particle theory says that energy of a photon is equal to the work function. Plus the max of the kinetic energy HFo equals Wo plus Ke Max. This equation tells us that if the frequency increases then the kinetic energy of electron should increase. Below a certain frequency then it won't it eject any electrons increasing intensity of light increases the number of electrons it ejected but doesn't affect the kinetic energy.

The quantum world doesn't like to be in only one place, it duplicates. If people acted like the atoms it wouldn't be easy to find them. In the beginning physicist used to use classical mechanics. That help us to predict the behavior of things with a sense. It is also known for understanding individual atoms that are joined by molecules. It could show physicists which molecules are favorable with other methods that were developed in the 1930s, through the 1940s and are referred as the theoretical monocular and atomic physics. It can predict how molecules behave and could explain the unusual property of light. Light from gases is what physicists started to question. So they decided to put a prism and heated gas in a dark room. After analyzing the prism, they discovered a form of lines that are spaced but are precise in color. Niels Bohr thought that the matter in atom was by the structure. He looked at it like a solar system, the electrons,( atom with tiny particles) orbit around a nucleus. But that when a gas gets heated the atoms get agitated and get to orbit to another heliospheres. They emit energy in a specific wavelength known as Quantum Leap. Which causes it to produce that certain color physicists see. An electron could turn into a wave of motion when high energy emerges. Schrodinger created an equation that changed the perspective of quantum mechanics. The equation he made was a description of an extended electron that got smeared out. The point wasn't there anymore but was just a mush. Later Max born created a new idea of what the equation described. He said that the wave isn't smeared but that it is a probability wave. He stated that the highest size of the wave is the location where it's predicted that the electron will be found at. Einstein didn't like the idea of the probability and thought that there must be a certainty into everything in reality. He thought that there must have been something missing in the theory. He later found a discovery that some physicists don't agree with. Einstein discovered entanglement which meant that two separate objects will share a state even if they are seperated from a far distance. An example would be if two spinners are shown, once the red and blue spinners are spinned, then if one spinner lands on blue then the other must land on red. Physicist found this weird because how could these two Quantums connect if they are not attached in any way. Einstein knew that this was weird but that the math was shown. He quoted “God does not throw dice”.

Mechanics would help Engineers design microscope switches that direct a flow of tiny electrons that control virtually every ones computers, digital cameras, and telephones. Without quantum mechanics our world would be still in the 19th century. Using steam engines, and Telegraph signals. Quantum mechanics is the most successful theory that physicist had discovered but are still questioning the meaning of Nature and reality. Teleportation by quantum entanglement are being experimented today. A physicist is trying to teleport tiny individual photons using the quantum entanglement, he uses three photons. One photon stays in the laboratory, while the second gets put someone else we're using laser equipment, the Third photon is going to be used to teleport. When testing this experiment the third photon copied the second photon when being teleported. When an object is teleporting it gets destroyed during the process but it becomes a replica. Quantum computers could be powerful because if we figure it out then we could figure out future predictions and unanswered questions. Questions such as why Quantum atoms go to place to place and we humans are made up of atoms but we can't just simply go place to place that easily? Some scientists believe that there is a missing part into the quantum theory and others believe that there might be other dimensions. This is what brings string theory into the argument. Tiny bits of energy that vibrates like a string is known as string theory. An example would be the strings of a guitar, the vibrations make those strings we can’t see but could be possible. Einstein discovered a relative understanding of the big things in the universe such as stars and galaxies. But when atoms and subatomic particles are combined they break down and create disaster. If quantum theory and relativity could connect all four forces then it could explain many things. String Theory could explain all nature from small matter to further of the cosmos. But in order to find the answer you must put the forces together and try to connect our universe with the equation. In 1907 Einstein found the theory of relativity to understand the force of gravity. Einstein was trying to find the force of gravity Newton left out something because Newton had already calculated gravity but he couldn't figure out how it works. Einstein found out that the medium that transmits gravity into space.Einstein's relativity Theory is how gravity works. He suggested warps and curves create what feels like gravity. So how are Earth orbits is just by following the curves that the sun makes. In order to find small scales they have to use other sets of laws called quantum mechanics. The problem is if you decrease the size of an atom you'll find a fabric with space that becomes bumpy that later becomes like a turbulence. It turns distorted that the ideas of the three dimensions tear apart. There hasn't been any experiment to prove that these strings exist but it was created accidently . Forces could be looked at like particles just as light could be a particle or a wave. String Theory requires 10 dimensions minimal. But if string theory turns out to be correct then there would be more than twenty-one dimensions People at first found String Theory crazy and that there must be a mistake. This theory came back and forth because people didn't think it was a huge discovery. But in 1919 a mathematician named Theodore Colusa had an idea that the Universe might actually have more than three dimensions. Those three dimensions are: left to right, back and forth, and up and down. In 1973 John was a physicist that wanted to prove string theory. He tried to tackle the equation and continue for 4 years by recombining equations but was unsuccessful. Later on he found graviton. Graviton is a particle that is believed to transmit gravity at Quantum level. He knew that this only unify the four forces. The four forces are force of gravity , electromagnetic force , nuclear force and the weak Force . Force of gravity attracts everything around is vicinity to create gravity. mass times the acceleration. Electromagnetic force is the four dimension Divergence of an anti-symmetric second rank tensor equals zero. Nuclear force is the strongest force of the four forces and is able to operate at scales much smaller than gravity. It holds matter together in subatomic scales and hold ordinary matter together. The weak Force is the most complicated Force. The changes a flavor quarks these six flavors are up down strange charm top and bottom. What day is a change particles which physicist find crazy. People found that string theory must be false because of its anomalies. In 1984 both Greene and Schwarz calculated the theory.

So if both equations equal the same then it'll be free of anomalies. This was important because if it was free of anomalies then no person could say that string theory is wrong. In the end it resulted to being the same number how was named “The Theory of Everything”. String theory becomes quantum mechanics by spreading them by virtual and taking the old idea of a point particle. To spread into a strength but no experiment can see what's happening or observe if it's wrong or right. Curled up in spatial dimensions is string theory. It works similar to our universe. It's like a finely-tuned machine that scientist only can find 20 numbers that give the characteristics. Recently physicist have found out that the Universe shouldn't have existed because we have more matter than antimatter. They say that during the big bang an abundance happened and that we humans are the consequence. Question is why was there in abundance over antimatter? Quantum tunneling is when atoms pass through a barrier that classical mechanics can’t.Overall our world we live in has more to be discovered. Quantum mechanics is easily understandable but it's still has people that are trying to discover what connects those two quantums together. I see it as a magnet, one side is positive and the other is negative. String theory though has many possibilities but will people ever get to see the strings to prove the theory right? They are both very intriguing and hold a very promising future for our universe.

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