Adaptive Measures Of Disaster In Bangladesh

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Bangladesh is a disaster-prone country. Every year different climatic hazard occur in this tropical area. In the natural location of our country we are most affected of such calamities. There are an ample scope of devastation of lives and property due to different natural calamities. Every year flood, droughts cyclone and other hazard happened in this area. We cannot stop these natural calamities but we can minimize the losses occurring from it. Through adopting some appropriate adaptive measures we can lower down our level of losses. As Bangladesh is a developing country it cannot access to modern technology at higher amount. But through long term process and planning it is possible to face any severe natural calamities smartly.

In Bangladesh Adaptation is more important that mitigation in the perspective of good governance. Bangladesh is the part of world’s most dynamic hydrological and the biggest active delta system and flood is the regular monsoon event here. The present Government taken some effective measures as a good governance. Through proper implementation of such steps government become capable to minimize the losses occurring from such natural calamities. In the perspective of Bangladesh adaptation is more important than mitigation. There are several reasons for which adaptation is more important these reasons are as follows:

Problem identification: To take any action it is needed to problem identification. When a problem is identified then the government can easily determine the course of action as an adaptive measures that can help the concerning authority to implement the action properly as well as monitor the vulnerable point.

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Timing choices: The government know what they want to do and how they want to do their action but the most important things is time management. Proper timing is the precondition of any successful course of action. In an adaptive measure it may be both in short and long term plan. In any plan the concerning authority can take the initiative timely and properly then it6 will be better effective way to gain expected outcome.

Norms and principal choices: To implement any action the government consider public interest hence it is effective to take adaptive measures than mitigating action. Mitigating action is the immediate action when a hazard occur on the other hand an adaptive measures is the long term process taken before any action. Hence in case of adaptive measures there is a vast opportunity of considering and regulating the public interest as well as religious outlook. It also helpful to make understandable to the parties involved in the total system of any hazard.

Implementation and enforcement choice: Implementation and enforcement are the most important aspects in any adaptive action and getting expected results. Government should identify the point where they implement the measures and how the enforce that action among the stakeholders. When all the stakeholders take it easily and perform accordingly then it becomes more effective to attain the target of the government. On the other hand, if the government take mitigating action they cannot get any scope to conveying these aspects. For the above reasons the concerning authority choose the adaptive action rather than mitigating action. The most well-known adaptive actions practises in Bangladesh are as follows.

  1. Embankments or polders: Embankment or polders is the best adaptive action against flood and its negative impact. Through embankment or polder system the authority create an opportunity to tackle the intensity of flooded crops filed and others properties.
  2. River, cannel or wetland de-silting: Through de silting the river cannel or wetland the authority can increase its navigation. By increasing navigation the government increase the flow of water when it overflow during monsoon period. When the navigation of the river cannel or other wetland then it creates its capacity to capture the additional overflow of water. As the global warming is causing the sea level rise hence it is also causes flood. By navigating river or cannel it is possible to tackle to some extent.
  3. Urban drainage/storm sewerage: Through building urban drainage and storm sewerage it is possible to control the intensity of losses occurring due to flood. By this way the authority can manage the flood intensity in considerable level.
  4. Infrastructure development: Through infrastructure development the government can tackle the hamper of disaster sufferings. By building bridge, culvert, Railway and other infrastructure it is possible to face the sufferings of flood and other disaster.
  5. Flood or cyclone shelter: Flood and cyclone shelter is the best option for adaptive measures that play an influential role for facing the emergency situation creating by and unexpected natural calamities.
  6. Community Radio: Establishment of community radio is another effective adaptive measures. By this the information dissemination among the parties involved from top to downstream in an action. Proper and timely information dissemination can create an option to quick response when a natural calamities are occurred.
  7. Crop Diversification: Crop diversification is an important way to face food shortage after any calamities. By diversification of crops it is possible to produce different crops in odd situation or unfavourable weather.
  8. Change in cultivation time: Now with the help of modern harvesting system it is possible to make some change in the time of cultivation system. By doing this we can save our crops from floods which is little predictable.
  9. Tree plantation Programme: By adopting tree plantation programme we can create green revolution that makes the word suitable for habitation. It creates environmental sustainable for the human being as well as ecological balance. Ecological balance can ensure the favourable condition. Trees can be planted beside road river bank and other open field that results a favourable environment that ensure the ecological balance.
  10. Cage Aquaculture: Popular theory of current time. Low cost of farming fish. We can also look for adaptive practices in fish farming as, shrimp farming in Ghers during high salinity period (January-July) and freshwater carps farming during low salinity period.
  11. Change in cultivation time: Now with the help of modern harvesting system it is possible to make some change in the time of cultivation system. By doing this we can save our crops from floods which is little predictable.
  12. Environmental management: mangrove preservation, afforestation, coastal green belts are the form of environmental management that is taken as the long term adaptive measures. That is come out as the effective way of ensuring protective measures that works at the vulnerable situation. In this way the government want to ensure the control on vulnerable situation occurring due to different pollution and others causes.
  13. Water Resources Management: Among the adaptive measures involving water resources management drainage, rain water harvesting, drinking water provision, and flood control are the best effective way of adaptive measures. In this way the concerning authority can implement the target that is capable to control the overflow of water as well as the efficient use of these water for mankind.
  14. Livelihood diversification and social protection for fishers during the cyclone season. It can help to the affected people to quick response during any natural hazard.
  15. Proper education about disaster and its concerning aspects grows consciousness among the people that is an effective measures.
  16. Gender-responsive disaster management, including separate rooms for women in cyclone shelters, mini-shelters closer to village and mobile medical teams at Char area in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh is a developed country. Most of the people here are not more conscious about the possibility and consequence and the probable adaptive measure of disaster. As every year different hazard occurred hence we should be aware about these disaster as well as we should raise consciousness and promote training about the different adaptive measure. Thus way we can implement it properly and the probable losses incur from these disaster can be minimized.

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