The Nutritious and Diet-Friendly Formulation of Breakfast Cereals

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Yeu et.al. (2008) studies shown the beneficial effects of soy and high-protein diets on weight loss and also claim dipping the risk of cardiovascular diseases. 4 formulations with soy meal content of 41, 47, 54 and 60% (w/w) were processed by extrusion and flavored with cinnamon. the evaluation with or without milk on acceptance were investigated that shows addition 54% (w/w) soy meal resulted in comparable acceptance ratings to products with lower soy meal content which can consequently aid in wt. loss and control Abdoulaye et.al.(2012) conducted a study in order to develop a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal from pre-treated foxtail millet and soybean have a low estimated glycemic index, or 35.39 and 34.49 respectively. The pre-treatment applied to raw materials (germination of millet, pre-cooking or roasting soybeans) have helped to improve the functional properties of blends and that can be stored at room temperature for 90 days without preservatives.

Millets and Their Importance in Breakfast

Jaybhaye et al (2014) reviews the processes, various traditional and convenience foods including ready-to-eat (RTE) food products developed from millets and product characteristics. Millets are residing in chief place in the diet that is nutritionally rich and provide economical meal to the people in many areas of the world. The climate change, water insufficiency, population growth, falling yields of major cereals, adequate access to enough food, firming up local agro-food systems present a challenge to scientists and nutritionists to explore the possibilities of producing, processing, and utilizing other potential food sources to end hunger and poverty. However, the special features of the millets, their beneficial uses and health consciousness of the consumer have made food scientists and engineers to develop various food products and mechanize the processes.

Chandrasekara and Shahidi, (2011) demonstrated that millets offer exceptional lead for health being rich in micronutrients, mainly minerals and B vitamins as well as nutraceuticals. Nowadays countries like American and European have recognized the importance of millets as ingredient in multigrain and gluten-free cereal products. However, in many Asian and African countries millet is the staple food of the people in millet producing areas and used to prepare various traditional foods and beverages like idli, dosa, papad, chakli, porridges, breads, infant and snack foods Awika & Rooney, (2004) explains that millets are a rich source of various phytochemicals including tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, phytosterols and pinacosanols. These phytochemicals have potential positive impact on human health. All millet grain and especially sorghum fractions possess high antioxidant activity in vitro relative to other cereals and fruits.

Shahidi, (2012) Millets have potential for protection against age-onset degenerative diseases. Consumption of millets reduces risk of heart disease, protects from diabetes, improves digestive system, lowers the risk of cancer, detoxifies the body, increases immunity in respiratory health, increases energy levels and improves muscular and neural systems and are protective against several degenerative diseases such as metabolic syndrome and Parkinson’s disease.

Quinoa

Graf et al (2015) states that over the past 2 decades new crop gain popularity, Quinoa that has substantial amount of nutrition and medicine properties. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Due to extraordinary properties numerous food and nutraceutical products have been developed from quinoa.

Abugoch 2009 demonstrated that quinoa has similar amino acid composition to that of milk casein that contains 8-22% proteins. Crude fat in quinoa is 2% -10% and oil consist of essential fatty acids like linoleic acid 50.24%, oleic acid 26.04% and linolenic acid 4.77%. Dietary Fiber accounts for 6% and carbohydrate content in whole seed varies from 67% to 74%. Quinoa seed contains vitamin A in the range of 0.12 to 0.53 mg/100 g, vitamin E 4.60-5.90 mg/100g, thiamine 0.05-0.60 mg/100g, ascorbic acid 0.00-8.50, Niacin 0.16-1.60 mg/100g.

Granda(2018) revels that quinoa seed which is underutilized crops contain tocopherols and tocotrienols, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and superoxide dismutase reassure nutritional requirement in human diet. HPLC method used to determine vitamin B1, B2, B6, tocopherol, and tocotrienol isomers and superoxide dismutase and imaging techniques were used to estimate the seed color. Quinoa grains had greater concentration of superoxide dismutase compared to wheat and barley. The richness of each variety and crop should be recognized and used integrally to improve the diet quality.

Jan et.al., (2017) studied about the starches isolated from Indian quinoa varieties and were examined for physicochemical, morphological, thermal and rheological properties. Among isolated starches V1 showed higher starch yield and lower purity (48.45 % and 98.32 %) than V2 (41.28 and 98.53 %). The amylose content was higher for V1 (12.10 %) than V2 (9.46 %). Swelling powers and solubility of the starches increased with increasing temperature. Peak viscosity (386.4 RVU) was higher for V1. In contrast V2 showed higher pasting temperature (72.85oC). Low setback viscosity of the starches suggests that they can be profitably used in frozen and refrigerated foods. Starch granules from both varieties were irregular, angular and polygonal in shape. The starch granule size obtained by SEM was 1.23 µm for V1 and 1.19 µm for V2. Both starches showed a typical A-type diffractrometric pattern with varying crystallinity. Further V1 showed lower transition temperatures (To, Tp and Tc) than V2. FTIR spectroscopy showed higher intensity and broader shape of V2 at O-H stretch which can be due to its higher crystallinity. Increased interest is shown in quinoa starch because of its unique microcrystalline granules. Higher yield and purity values suggest that both varieties can be exploited for commercial starch utilization.

Demir et. al. (2017) explains about celiac disease which is among the most important health problems and the most important feature of this disease is its being the only lifelong food allergy. To overcome this problem, some gluten-free and starch based food products have been generally introduced to the market; however, these products are starch based with low nutritive value. Therefore, it is important to enrich such products for individuals who are obliged to be nourished by gluten-free diet. In this study, wheat flour was replaced with quinoa flour (QF) in the production of tarhana. The objective of this work was to investigate the steady shear, viscoelastic and deformation and recovery properties (applying three interval thixotropy test (3ITT)) of gluten-free tarhana soups prepared with different concentrations of QF (40%, 50%, and 60%). It was found that the soups fitted well (R2>0.99) Ostwald de Waele model and exhibited shear thinning behavior. Besides, elastic properties dominated the viscous properties. Although the maximum deformation and recovery were determined at 40% concentration level, minimum deformation and recovery properties were specified at 60% concentration level. The results suggest that QF can be used in gluten-free tarhana formulations to enhance rheological properties.

De Jesus Souza et. al. (2016) aimed at evaluating the physiological quality of quinoa seeds along time when submitted at storage conditions and packaging. An entirely randomized experiment was conducted on factorial scheme 2 x 3 x 6 with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of 2 storage conditions: lab environment and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) chamber set at 4±2°C and 90% relative humidity (RH); 3 package types: permeable, semipermeable and impermeable; and 6 evaluations: before storage (0), 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 days after storage. Seed viability was determined by the standard germination test while vigor by accelerated aging test, emergence in sand and emergence speed index. The use of impermeable packaging kept at low temperature maintained the physiological quality of seeds during 300 days of storage. The seeds kept in permeable or semi-permeable packaging under uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions were viable only for 180 days. The permeable package using Kraft paper was the least efficient to conserve physiological quality of quinoa seeds. It was demonstrated that quinoa seeds are rather sensitive to high temperature, loosing viability in short time.

Wu et. al. (2017) conducted research on examining the composition and properties of starch from 11 pure varieties and 2 commercial samples of quinoa in relationship to the texture of cooked quinoa. Nearly all starch properties and characteristics differed among these samples. Results showed that total starch content of seeds ranged from 53.2 to 75.1 g/100 g apparent amylose content ranged from 2.7% to 16.9%; total amylose ranged from 4.7% to 17.3%; and the degree of amylose–lipid complex ranged from 3.4% to 43.3%. Amylose leaching ranged from 31 mg/100 g starch in “Japanese Strain” to 862 mg/100 g starch in “49ALC.” “Japanese Strain” starch also exhibited the highest water solubility (4.5%) and the lowest swelling power (17). α-Amylase activity in “1ESP,” “Col.#6197,” “Japanese Strain,” “QQ63,” “Yellow Commercial,” and “Red Commercial” (0.03 to 0.09 CU) were significantly lower than the levels of the other quinoa samples (0.20 to 1.16 CU). Additionally, gel texture, thermal properties, and pasting properties of quinoa starches were investigated. Lastly, correlation analysis showed that the quinoa samples with higher amylose content tended to yield harder, stickier, more cohesive, gummier, and chewier texture after cooking. A higher degree of amylose–lipid complex and amylose leaching were associated with softer and less chewy cooked quinoa TPA texture. Higher starch enthalpy correlated with firmer, more adhesive, more cohesive, and chewier texture. In sum, starch plays a significant role in the texture of cooked quinoa.

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Bethapudi (2017) revels that it was North Americans and Europeans who has discovered quinoa as healthy food in the 1970’s. It has been consumed in many forms i.e. quinoa seed as in rice in soups, puffed to make breakfast cereal or grounded seed to flour toasted and baked goods like breads, biscuits, cookies, flakes, noodles, tortillas and pancakes. Its fame is vividly increased in current years due to its high protein content and gluten free quality helpful for diabetic and celiac patients respectively. According to a study the quinoa has been incorporated in kichadi, Vada and chapatis. Result shows Kichadi had the highest score in organoleptic evaluation then vada and least was for chapatis. Hence study was concluded that out of the three breakfast items prepared, kichadi was rated the best.

Kaur et al (2018) states it one of the best convenient food products is cereal bar for incorporation of nutritional ingredient to form high acceptable combination. In a research combination of quinoa, flaxseed and brown rice along with nuts and honey. The conclusions discovered that gluten-free cereal bar provided substantial amount of protein, fat and bioactive compounds that help celiac patient and provide gluten-free diet is in life long treatment so, this can be a healthy option for consuming as in form of snack for those patients.

Godoy et al (2015) found in another study of product formulation in which broken quinoa grains with rice co-products i.e. bran can offer good opportunities nutritious foods without gluten. The breakfast cereal was prepared in three different treatments on was Caramel (sweet), with addition of caramel colorant before extrusion and glucose syrup after this process; second was Annatto (salty), with adding annatto colorant before extrusion and sodium chloride solution after this; and third one natural, without addition of colorant and flavoring. During sensory evaluation annatto (salty) and caramel (sweet) cereals flavors was best accepted in comparison with natural indicating that consumer preference is more distinct flavors. Production of breakfast cereal from quinoa grains and broken rice bran is viable considering the technological, nutritional, microbiological and sensory aspects.

Srujana et al (2017) demontrated that germinated quinoa also found very nutritious shown by a study in which five types of formulations of traditional products were prepared with germinated quinoa ranging from 25, 50, 75 and 100% substitutions. On sensory evaluation traditional recipes of India ladoo (sweet) and chapathies (unleavened Indian flat bread) 25% of germinated quinoa flour were acceptable in comparison with Laddu prepared with 100% ragi flour, chapathi prepared with 50% of wheat flour and 50% of Jowar flour was served as control found best.

Chopra et al (2018) conducted a study on sweet potato flour and quinoa flour were blended in equal proportion and then incorporated at the levels of 20, 40 and 60% by replacing wheat flour to prepare cookies. Among the prepared cookies 60% were found high acceptability on the 9-hedonic scale in terms of appearance, colour, texture, flavour, taste and overall acceptability. Nutritional profile of cookies higher than those of control cookies i.e., protein, fat, fibre and ash content to be 29.3, 71.6, 51.8 and 108.3% respectively

Isabelle et al (2015) optimized a formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch were aim to develop a gluten free formulation of quinoa-based. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation was also assessed. Findings of report for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch obtained was categorized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability

Kahlon et.al. (2015) demonstrated pioneering ancient food product fusilli pasta whole grains as gluten-free, egg-free pasta made using pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Dough formulations contained teff 87%, buckwheat 82%, quinoa 61% and amaranth 15% were accepted as best organoleptically. This formulation of pasta would be a healthy option to vegetarians as well as to a person suffering from celiac disorder.

Chia

Ayerza & Coates,( 2009) states that chia seeds are a tiny seed as energy booster that have very high nutritional and therapeutic potential work. The Salvia genus among the species of the Labiatae family grows annually at temperatures of 15-30 °C in a zone extending from western Mexico to northern Guatemala. The optimal development of the plant is guaranteed by the warm climate, high rainfall and. As compared to 100 g of milk possess 6 times more calcium, 11 times more phosphorus, and 4 times more potassium and fair magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper content. It has exceptionally high amount of 15.24% protein, 35% highly soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and 25.40% fat.

Mohd Ali et. al (2012) explains public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

Bourneo (2010) study reveals that chia have been shown positive affect on the colour, structure and flavor that would substitute up to 25% of the egg and fat in cakes. Peperkamp, (2014) categories of chia seeds may be found in the market in form of raw seeds, oil capsules as supplements, seed flour, etc. Raw chia seeds and flour are incorporated to muesli, breakfast cereals, crisps, peanut butter, fruit, nut and different seed mixes, drinks, shakes, desserts, or homemade bakery products, such as bread and bread mixes. It is also used as skin cleaners, watery eye essence, and skin creams in cosmetic products. Also, used as animal food preparation chiefly for horses and birds.

Sandri et.al (2017) defines the best physical properties and sensory-accepted gluten-free bread formulation by incorporating 5%–14% whole chia seed flour that shows good levels of ash, lipid, protein and dietary fiber related to those of the white gluten-free bread. Divyashree et al (2016) reveals that the most widespread product consumed by every age group and handy food as ready-to-eat, easy-to-carry, easy-to-store bakery product that is chiefly fortified with micro and macro nutrients and accessibilities. In a study, chia seed flours replace buckwheat in order to improve the protein, fiber, fay acids and mineral content,

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