The Issue Of Child Labour In The Industrial Revolution
Industrial revolution was the major historical event that took place in 19th century. It was the transmission of hand production process to machine and chemical manufactured process. It was the time that many people especially in Britain were enjoyed. They were able to purchase the newly invented items. Everything was possible with the invention of big machines and with many factories. This excitement era was occurred in between 1820s to 1840s were it turned the universe around. It helps many companies to produce more goods and services and there was an economic boom in countries like Britain and America. There was mass production in every manufactured items. In addition, it was the first of each kind throughout the globe so everybody was very excited.
However, technologies were slowly discovered, in the past companies used hand production process. Child labor was common in the factories, teenagers between the age of five to fifteen were employed in the factories. Most of the work in the factories were done by children’s and adults who were employed to work. Children’s were not treated well in the factories, they were abuse by the adult employees and factory owners. They were also exhausted because they were not given leisure time to refresh themselves. Government was not fully implemented the laws to protect the youngsters from companies. Schools were established but most of the kids came from poor household. So they had to find some ways to helps their families with little they earned from the factories. In the following text will elaborate more on how children became like machines in the industries.
Across the universe industrialation was first began in Britain. Nardinelli (1980; p.755) stated that, Quarry Bank Mill was the first company that used the method called (pauper apprentices). First children’s transported from isolated villages like Macclesfield and Wilmslow to work in the industry. There were about 333,041 teenagers employed in the factory Tuttle (1999). In every two weeks each child received a lodging and board with two pence. Elder kids work as a piercers and scavengers, but after a year once they skilled, they were certified to work in carding and spinning.
Furthermore, employees encountered many problems as they employed in a factory, were much difficult than working with their families in the home. They were permitted to work every day, started early in the morning six o’clock and finished evening seven o’clock, with only an hour break from twelve to one. Children’s were in the harsh condition they made a mistake or sleep during the working period they were beaten. Their income was very low compared with long period of time worked Tuttle (1999) described that in a week children’s were paid less pence. They were told to arrive at certain period of time. Lateness was punishable with a fine and they were not given a break. Everyone worked a twelve hours in a day and no one was permitted to leave before a certain time Tuttle (1999).
Employees were lived in a terrible condition, there was no good sanitation. One bed was shared between nine to ten kids. Tuttle (1999) the condition was awful, no brick walls and no damp resistant coursed the house moist. Rain leeched between the walls, and even in summers, damp rose up the walls. The only rooms that were not moist were cellars. Factory’s environment also in a bad condition for them to work. It was built on an open area to monitor the workers. Factory guidelines were posted on the wall for them to see, but most of the kids were uneducated and they could not read Reay (1991; p.128). Foreman ordered them to work for a long period without a break and sometimes they missed dinner. Teenagers worked many hours became tired and found it hard to maintain the rapidity required by the managers. Managers also beat the children with hard strap sticks to make them toil faster. Managers never permitted them to neither discuss in groups nor in peers Thompson, (1981; p. 208).
Many kids from deprived household who could not had enough money to feed themselves. Many derived peoples found difficult to sustain so they sent their kids to work Tuttle (1999; p.43). In addition, employees were frequently argued with the company owners about the quality of food given in the working zone. Most of them told the government that they could not eat good meal that were given because of pollution and exhaustion. Children’s photographs posted in every parts of Britain, told them about juvenile abuse and malnutrition. Kids were under the administration of unfamiliar persons. Consequently, management did not bring out the role of welfare of the teenager’s employees, because managers paid by the owners for the companies to operate in a proper way.
Child labor was cruel and risky Horrell and Humphires (1995; p. 510) stated that industries neglected children’s safety in the working zone and it did prove fatal many times. Employees below the era of fourteen were sent to handle the machine with adults in the main worker Nardinelli (1980; p.745). Adult employees in charge of main workers would verbally abuse the youngsters and beaten them when they did not follow their instructions. Workers given very little consideration on children’s safety in the companies. Girls were not treated properly in the companies, thrashings and other cruel forms of suffering. Girls were also vulnerable to sexual harassment. During the working period kids felt sleepy they put their heads into hot water. Teenagers were punished for being late or not finished their given task were weighted. Administrators tied a rope on disobeyed children’s neck and hang them up and down, so that other children’s could see them and follow the instructions and finished all the given task. This cruel punishment was last an hour for kids to repent.
Lack of education forced teenagers to toil with the companies and educationl was the key to the child labors solution Nardinelli (1980; p. 755). Education could eradicate student from the bondage of slavery. It was very true that illiteracy Reay (1991; pp. 89-129) had blocked the pathway for children to uplift social and financial hierarchy. Education Act of 1870 permitted all children to get educated, but some immatures were came from poor background so they had to work Horn (1974; p. 795). However, managers purposely got juveniles to assist matured workers in the industries Nardinelli (1980; p. 746). These two labors competed because of different ages, adults ruined the children’s rights therefore, children’s greatly suffered. Managers regarded children’s as the foundation of labor. Some parents did not send their kids to work, even though they were poor. Treatments in the companies were not required the standard of work. Employees had no valid legal document to protest for their rights Thompson (1981; p. 189).
Nardinelli (1980; pp. 739-55) stated that Factory Act of 1833 could not stop factory owners to employ the workers. Until 1924 after the congress session state passed a new legal law, but was not fully approved. Also, government carried out investigation on child labor but it did not work because survey was systematically conducted. State greatly reports on the juvenile efforts across the country, but was not formally documented in a coverage. Government mainly focused on employee’s privilege. Amendment was not fully legalized until parliament passed Fair Labor Standards Act in 1938. The act offered liberty to the children’s and they were set free from slavery.
To conclude, industrial revolution was the time that British way of life changed. It was the time that many people in the hamlets shifted to the urban areas looking for jobs. Industries owners provided accommodation for them. Children’s first of each kind toiled with their families before they were employed in companies with adults. Children’s were not treated properly in the companies. They were given the task that were not match with their ages. Lateness in the industries were given hard punishment that they could repent from their mistakes. They were not sheltered in a good accommodation. A single bedroom shared between many employees.
Even though some poor parents did not release their offspring’s to the companies. They were afraid because of the harsh treatments were given by administrator. Some children’s collapsed because they were not given enough food that could kept them from longer period. Their issues were published in every parts of British through the diver’s social media. Posters pasted everywhere in the streets. But these things could not shake company owners because there was no legal document that could stop them to employ more. Until Factory Act that was passed by the government in 1833 but it could not stop child labor. Government investigated child labor in every factory but everything was done systemically. Until Congress passed Fair Labor Standards Act in 1938 and child labor was easily faded in British.
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