The Analysis of the New York Times Publications
Including France, Germany and some other European countries endured a searing heat wave at the end of the month of July, although overall Europe was not as warm as some places, in part because of iced conditions in Scandinavia. Temperature records in every minute as Earth continues to warm, in large part because of human-related activities and other greenhouse gases. At month’s end, ice covered 726,000 square miles of ocean, an amount that depicts a record low for the end of July. But the yearly minimum is not shown until the melting season ends in September, so conditions over the next six weeks will determine whether this year’s ice extent is lower than the record year of 2012. United States government scientists on Thursday confirmed that July was the hottest month in the year 2019, edging out the previous record-holder, July 2016. The findings are in line with those of European scientists at the Copernicus Climate Change Service, who said earlier this month that July was 0.07 degree Fahrenheit higher than three years ago. Antarctic sea-ice extent in July 2019 was also at a record low, slightly lower than the previous record set two years ago, NOAA said. There were no record cold July temperatures anywhere. Alaska had its hottest July since statewide record-keeping began nearly a century ago.
The biodegradable, Oxo-biodegradable and conventional plastic formulations remained functional as carrier bags after being in the soil or the marine environment for over three years, the study published in Environmental Science and Technology says. Biodegradable and compostable plastic bags are still capable of carrying full loads of shopping after being exposed in the natural environment for three years, the study by researchers from the University of Plymouth says. India, United Kingdom and several countries have taken steps to curb the use of plastic amid growing concerns over pollution, but claims that some bags are biodegradable don’t stand up to scrutiny, new research released on Monday says. Richard Thompson, head of the university’s International Marine Litter Research Unit, added: “This research raises a number of questions about what the public might expect when they see something labelled as biodegradable. The study questions whether biodegradable formulations can be relied upon to offer a sufficiently advanced rate of degradation to offer any realistic solution to the problem of plastic litter. The bags were monitored at regular intervals, and deterioration was considered in terms of visible loss in surface area and disintegration as well as assessments of subtler changes in tensile strength, surface texture and chemical structure.
The 1457 publication likely offered readers a year’s worth of tide tables, weather forecasts, and astronomical insights, much like Old Farmer’s or National Geographic does today. By that time, the seasons and stars had been a central force in human lives for thousands of years, spurring religious traditions and scientific inquiry, and shaping artistic impulses. “When most people are responding to when they say spring or fall is, it’s when they’re looking at the window and go, ‘Oh!’,” Crimmins says of the moment when life returns after a long winter. It’s enough to make you wonder: is it time we redefine the seasons? Not so fast, says Theresa Crimmins, assistant director of the USA National Phenology Network, an organization of thousands of volunteers and scientists monitoring the cyclical behavior of plant and animal life across the country. But Crimmins says people tend to ‘use long-term climatological data to chop up [their] year,’ with widely-varying results. Most of the United States experiences four distinct seasons. But, Crimmins says, changing the boundaries of our biologically-derived seasons, “assumes plants can continue to advance their phenology and survive just fine.” Data suggests that won’t be the case.
Fossils of the species are usually found in caves, suggesting the animals spent a lot of time there, rather than using caves purely for hibernation. The researchers analyzed mitochondrial DNA extracted from cave bear bones collected across Switzerland, Poland, France, Spain, Germany, Italy and Serbia. ‘We see this dramatic drop in the population of the cave bear starting from 40,000 years ago, which coincides with the arrival of anatomically modern humans in Europe,’ said Prof Verena Schuenemann of the University of Zurich, who led the study. ‘It is the clearest evidence we have so far that humans might have played a big role in the extinction of the cave bear. “Cave bears were a type of bear that lived in Asia and Europe. The arrival of human ancestors in Europe some 40,000 years ago coincided with the downfall of the cave bear, scientists have revealed. The findings support the idea that human influences played a major role in pushing the cave bear to the brink. The extinction of the cave bear is a matter of much debate, with explanations including human interference, environmental changes or a combination of both.
Building on from recycling, what else can we do to reduce the amount of plastic we’re going through every day? In Australia alone, more than 30 million toothbrushes are used and thrown away each year, equaling one million kilos of toothbrush waste. Pop in a sprig of mint and a slice of lemon, and you’ll have everyone wanting one too! In the United States alone, 500 million plastic straws are used every day, and once thrown out, they each find their way into landfill or into the ocean, where it causes harm to marine animals. If you can, switch to a reusable glass straw such as one of these, or better yet, ditch straws in general! Instead of bringing your sandwich to school or work in a plastic bag, try a glass lunch box or paper bag. Luckily, there are plenty of natural toothbrushes out there, such as these bamboo ones that are biodegradable and environmentally sustainable. Unlike liquid soap, these don’t come in a plastic container! If you check out your local pharmacy, there should be plenty of natural options for you, such as The Goat Soap. If that’s not scary enough, scientists warn that if we continue to throw out rubbish at the speed we do now, plastic rubbish will outweigh fish in the oceans by 2050.So, we know plastic is bad; it’s not biodegradable, it pollutes the environment and it is a danger to wildlife and aquatic life. Some come wrapped in plastic, but if you can find ones wrapped in paper that’s even better! We’re all guilty of occasionally shunning the traditional refillable bottle for the convenience of disposable plastic bottles. So, this got us thinking: If we’re already going to break-up with plastic bags, why not go one step further? Or maybe even five! The world already produces more than 260 million tons of plastic each year.
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