The 1967 Referendum: A Landmark Moment in Australian History

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The year 1967 marked a pivotal moment in Australian history with the landmark referendum that sought to address the exclusion and discrimination faced by Indigenous Australians. The referendum, which took place on May 27th, 1967, aimed to amend the Australian Constitution to empower the federal government to legislate for Indigenous Australians and include them in the national census count. In this essay, we will explore the historical context, significance, and lasting impact of the 1967 referendum on the journey towards Indigenous rights and recognition in Australia.

The Historical Context

For decades leading up to the referendum, Indigenous Australians faced systemic discrimination and marginalization. The Constitution, as it stood, did not recognize them as citizens and excluded them from various legal and social rights. Indigenous Australians were often subjected to discriminatory laws and policies that denied them basic human rights and perpetuated inequality. As public awareness of these injustices grew, so did the momentum for change.

The Need for Reform

The campaign for the 1967 referendum was a response to the call for justice and equality. Indigenous and non-Indigenous activists, along with supportive political leaders, recognized the urgent need to address the discriminatory clauses of the Constitution. The referendum became a platform to demand change and rectify the systemic inequities that had persisted for generations.

Empowering the Federal Government

One of the key objectives of the referendum was to amend sections of the Constitution that prevented the federal government from legislating for Indigenous Australians. The proposed changes aimed to remove restrictions on the government's ability to enact policies that would benefit Indigenous communities, particularly in areas such as health, education, and land rights. By empowering the federal government to take action, the referendum aimed to pave the way for significant improvements in the lives of Indigenous Australians.

Inclusion in the Census

Another crucial aspect of the referendum was the effort to include Indigenous Australians in the national census count. The exclusion of Indigenous people from the census had perpetuated their invisibility and contributed to the marginalization they experienced. The proposed amendment sought to rectify this oversight and acknowledge the presence and contributions of Indigenous Australians to the nation.

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Overwhelming Public Support

The 1967 referendum enjoyed overwhelming public support, reflecting a growing national consciousness of the need for change. On referendum day, over 90% of Australians voted in favor of the proposed amendments. This remarkable level of support signaled a collective commitment to rectifying historical injustices and moving towards a more inclusive and equitable society.

Legacy and Ongoing Struggles

The success of the 1967 referendum was a significant step forward in the struggle for Indigenous rights and recognition. The amendments empowered the federal government to enact policies aimed at addressing the disparities faced by Indigenous Australians. However, the journey towards true equality did not end there. The referendum marked the beginning of a broader movement for land rights, self-determination, and reconciliation—a movement that continues to shape the discourse and policies surrounding Indigenous affairs in Australia.


The 1967 referendum was a watershed moment that demonstrated the power of collective action and the capacity for change in a society committed to justice and equality. It signaled a rejection of discrimination and an embrace of inclusion and unity. The legacy of the referendum reminds us that the path to justice is marked by progress, challenges, and ongoing efforts to address historical injustices and promote equal rights for all members of society.


Broome, R. (2005). "Aboriginal Victorians: A History Since 1800." Allen & Unwin.

McGregor, R. (2010). "Indigenous Australians and the Commonwealth Government: A History of Exclusion." Melbourne University Publishing.

Reynolds, H. (2015). "Why Weren't We Told?" Penguin Random House Australia.

Reserve Bank of Australia. (2017). "1967 Referendum." Retrieved from /resources/1967-referendum/.

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