How Benificial Hydroelectric Power Would Be to Egypt

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Introduction

The problem at hand is that Egypt’s population is growing at alarming rates. This means in order to support this ever-growing population more resources are needed one of which is energy. Also currently the government relies mostly on non-renewable energy sources. As is well known the Nile runs through Egypt. Through more hydroelectric power stations the energy demand of the population could be met. The main issue at hand, however, is that damns and or hydroelectric power plants greatly disrupt the environment, misplacing fish populations, changing water levels and depleting the natural fertilizers that are carried in during floods. (source 1)

Problem and Possible Solution

The problem is as stated in the introduction, Egypt has a rapidly growing population and a too readily uses non-renewable energy. As is seen in the graph to the right; the energy production from renewable energy is increasing but not as fast or enough to replace CCGT. egypt is the biggest consumer of oil and gas in the whole of the African continent. It is responsible for 22% of Africa's petroleum usage (source 5) and 37% of natural gas usage in Africa. (source 5) Egypt has already built a hydroelectric dam before which produces significantly more than any other renewable resources. Therefore if they were to build more of them on the Nile they could replace the usage of non-renewables or at the very least quite a lot of it. Egypt is already looking to make 50% of their energy production by 2035 renewable (source 8)

How Hydro Electricity Works

Hydroelectricity is made by getting power from the movement of water. The water which is kinetic energy is turned into mechanical energy through the use of the turbine. then the transformer turns the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The two most important variables when it comes to how much power a hydroelectric power plant can make are; one, the extent of the distance that the waterfalls, And two the speed at which the water moves at. (source 3)

The formula to calculate the energy output is as follows.

P = M x G x Hnet x η P = This is the power output which would be measured in watts.

M = This represents the mass of the flow rate or also the speed/force that it has.

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G = This represents the gravity in which the damn is on and the gravitational pull of the earth is.

9. 81m/s2 Hnet = This is the head of the dam or how big is the hole in which the water travels through the energy loss on average from the head also known as the net is usually.

10% η = This is how efficient each aspect of the process is so the turbine and the generator. As some energy is lost in this process the usual efficiency of a hydroelectric generator is.

7, 1% Affects on the enviorment These dams would provide energy for much of the population of Egypt.

However, there are other alternative options to reach the energy demand that is much less damaging. Egypt already would likely be damaged greatly by the renaissance dam which will cut off water supply, a supply which made Egypt the historical powerhouse it once was. All life in Egypt depends on the Nile. 99 percent of all water used in Egypt comes from the Nile. (source 4) They depend on it for agriculture fishing and all in all life not to mention how it would damage the environment.

If Egypt were to build another dam this would only worsen. Another dam could block fish migrations interrupting a migration. The previous dam has prevented many fish populations from migrating to lake Nassar and also from leaving. This interrupts breading patterns of fish, as many return to a certain location to mate. Another dam could further interrupt fish populations and deplete the Nile of said populations. Not only are certain fish populations put at risk. The vegetation that grows along the Nile would also deplete as water levels drop. This is because they simply are not getting enough water. This would also worsen agriculture in the area which is made readily available via the Nile. It also would deplete necessary nutrients for the land. ( source 6)

On the other hand the the building of a dam can in minor ways help the environment. One way in which it could would be stopping flooding. Before the Aswan dam there where many more Nile floods which could destroy parts of ecosystems. By killing vegetation animals and washing up aquatic life. Another way in which a dam can be beneficial to the environment is by stopping toxic materials and waste from continuing down the body of water. Another dam could alow Egypt to better monotor waste in the water and provide a more clean water supply. (source 7)

Alternative Energy Sources

One alternative energy source that Egypt already massively uses is steam and or geothermal energy which is a renewable resource. They could also tap into more hot springs along the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez. The springs there are much warmer. However, it is only a small part of the country that has this potential for geothermal energy. This though could be an alternative that would be less damaging to the environment. Though it it is unknown how many of these hot springs exist and how many of them are hot enough to be producing energy. (source 9)

Conclusion

In conclusion, hydroelectric power could solve growing energy needs within Egypt. As the Nile is a huge river with a lot of energy that could be used in it. There are some rather negative effects on the environment when it comes to hydroelectricity, but if Egypt is cautious most of them can be avoided. There are other solutions but how viable they are is unknown. Overall hydroelectricity is a likeley solution if Egypt is careful about exacuting it.

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