Benefits and Negative Effects of Aspirin

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Aspirin is a common drug and one of the ten most important drugs. It has a lot of benefits, but it can also have adverse effects.

In 1897, felix hoffman did first synthesize the substance that makes up aspirin. Aspirin, marketed in 1898, was also found to have an anti-platelet effect. In 1899, dreiser introduced her into the clinic, giving her the name Aspirin. By 2015, aspirin had been used for one hundred years and became one of the three classical drugs in the history of medicine. It is still the most widely used antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the world, and it is also the standard preparation for comparing and evaluating other drugs.

Aspirin is a white crystalline or crystalline powder, odorless or slightly acetic acid odor, slightly soluble in water, easily soluble in ethanol, soluble in ether, chloroform, the aqueous solution is acidic. This product is a derivative of salicylic acid, which has been used in clinical practice for nearly 100 years, and has been proved to be effective in relieving mild or moderate pain, such as toothache, headache, neuralgia, muscle pain and dysmenorrhea. It can also be used to relieve pain and swelling in conditions such as arthritis. In recent years, aspirin has been found to inhibit platelet aggregation and prevent thrombosis. It is clinically used to prevent the formation of thrombosis after transient cerebral ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, artificial heart valves and venous fistula or other operations.

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Absorption is rapid and complete after oral administration. It has begun to be absorbed in the stomach and most of it can be absorbed in the upper part of the small intestine. Absorption is related to solubility and gastrointestinal pH. Food can reduce the rate of absorption, but does not affect the amount of absorption. Slow absorption of enteric-coated tablets. It is absorbed quickly with sodium bicarbonate. Individuals can be very different. After absorption distribution in the tissues, but also infiltration of the joint cavity, cerebrospinal fluid. The protein binding rate of aspirin is low, but the salicylate protein binding rate after hydrolysis is 65 ~ 90%. The binding rate decreased with high blood concentration. The rate of renal dysfunction and pregnancy were also low.

The antipyretic mechanism of aspirin originate in the hypothalamus, the temperature regulating center of hypothalamus causes peripheral vascular expansion, increase blood flow to the skin, sweating, also the heat dissipation and antipyretic effect, but restrain the prostaglandins in the hypothalamus synthesis. The analgesic effect is mainly achieved by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandin and other substances that can make the pain sensation sensitive to mechanical or chemical stimuli, so as to alleviate the pain sensation of patients and thus play an analgesic effect. Aspirin has five USES for the human body. (1) analgesic effect(2) anti-inflammatory effect(3) antipyretic effect(4) anti-rheumatism effect(5) inhibition of platelet aggregation

In addition, aspirin has several other benefits: it reduces skin and mucosal lymph node syndrome (kawasaki disease) -- children with kawasaki disease are given aspirin to reduce inflammation and prevent the formation of blood clots in their blood vessels. It also protects against cancer. On August 6, 2014, British scientists evaluated all available evidence and concluded that taking aspirin every day could reduce the risk of developing or dying from stomach and bowel cancers. If people over the age of 50 took aspirin every day for a decade, it might protect some 122, 000 people from cancer within 20 years.

But scientists warn that aspirin can cause bleeding in the body, so doctors must be consulted before taking aspirin for long periods of time. The long-term use of aspirin is a hotly contested issue in the medical community. Aspirin has many side effects on the human body. Gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common adverse reactions to aspirin, with nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort or pain among the more common symptoms. Oral aspirin can directly stimulate the gastric mucosa to cause abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting. Long-term use can easily cause gastric mucosa injury, gastric ulcer and gastric bleeding. People with specific constitution can cause skin rash, angioneurotic edema, asthma and other allergic reactions after taking aspirin, which is more common in middle-aged people or patients with rhinitis and nasal polyps. Aspirin also has an effect on the blood. It usually does not change the number of white blood cells and platelets or the blood cell volume or hemoglobin levels. But long-term use of aspirin can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.

Aspirin is contraindicated. Children under 12 years old may cause hyperuricemia in Reye's syndrome, and long-term use can cause liver damage. Avoid for pregnant women. Aspirin should not be used in patients with traumatic bleeding of the anterior chamber. Aspirin is contraindicated in patients with cesarean section or abortion;Aspirin exacerbates hemolysis in hemolytic anemia patients with 6-phosphate glucose dehydrogenase deficiency;Neonates, young children and the elderly appear to be particularly sensitive to the effects of aspirin on bleeding. The treatment dose can cause metabolic acidosis, fever, hyperventilation and brain symptoms in children under 2 years old. The risk of gastrointestinal or brain bleeding may offset the benefits of a small dose of aspirin.

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