Drugs And Its Toxicity For Human Health

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Drugs are substances if when taken decreases the rate of malady. These substances are configuration to fix and take out the hidden reason for infection. Most time drugs are utilized heedlessly by shoppers without understanding its unfavorable impact. Take for example, paracetamol, a medication known to alleviate migraine and torments from the body. A few people take this medication at whatever point they feel migraine without appropriate medicine from the specialist. Most occasions you discover that this medication is taken even without nourishment.

Clearly, medication are intended to cure, but similarly can execute if when taken exorbitantly without solution. Paracelsus will always saythe dosage makes the poison. It is always said that excessive consumption of any substances be it food are not good for our health like wise drugs. Taking a gander at this case. A lady was experiencing an intense contamination for over 2 years. She was told by a patent street pharmacist who lived close by to take gentamicin infusion. It happened that in the wake of getting this infusion, she was not able to hear again till today.

A determination made on her showed that she was given a high dosage of gentamicin infusion which added up to her deafness. This case would serve as an example to what excessive intake of drug could result in the body. Give me chance to convey to your notice one thing you must know about drug metabolism.

Drug metabolism differs in different individual. There are some set of people who can metabolise drug more faster than others. Also a drug that are known to cure malaria in one individual may end up becoming a placebo in another individual. These differences in drug reactions in different people can be regarded as phamarcogenetics. Based on what I said earlier on drug differences in metabolism, these differences are determined by the rate at which the drug is metabolized, which cytochrome monooxygenase is an important enzyme in this metabolism. Come to think of it, do you know that increase in the rate at which drug metabolize also decreases the intensity of drug reaction. If a pro drug are meant to be metabolized by a particular enzyme into drug, you will find out that most times this pro drug can be converted faster than normal which result to accumulation of drug level thereby causing toxicity. At this point let me look out to some definition of terms which might be confusing.

A placebo is a drug that does not have a physiological effect in the body rather it is given to solve or resolve ones psychological effect. Take for instance when a drug called tetracycline is taking with food. The drug will end up not having any effect in the body due it intake with food. This inability of the drug to have an effect on the body is called placebo. A pro drug is an inactive drug which when taken can be converted to it's active form.

Toxicology is defined as the science that deals with adverse effect of drugs and chemical substances. Returning to our ordinary dialog, let us rapidly take a gander at a few medications and it's harmfulness. Paracetamol poisoningI will jump at the chance to begin by making this inquiry, for what reason do some individual create liver issue. For what reason do a few people build up this sickness in their beginning time of life. My lecturer will always say that the reason why some persons develops liver problem is due to paracetamol poisoning. He made a detailed explanation by saying that paracetamol when taken does not leave the liver even after it has been metabolized. wiki commons by Mateus Hidalgo, under~CC BY-SA 3. 0 According to a recent research made, paracetamol is the cause of 100 death of people due to it's chronic effect and some several other undocumented hundred of death every year. Paracetamol is normally metabolized by conjugation to form sulphate and glucuronide. Out of this product none of them is regarded to be toxic. After it has been metabolized in the body, it is then excreted in the urine. Some particles of this paracetamol which did not undergo excretion are converted into it's reactive metabolites termed N -acetyl- p bezoquinoneime by cytochrome p450 enzyme. This toxic substances are then conjugated into glutathione which is then excreted in urine. Subsequent intake of this drug depletes the glutathione whereby the active metabolites then bind to the unicellular constituent of the liver to cause or produce tissue death. This effect is characterize by vomiting, nausea, anorexia and sweating and then result to rise in alanine transferase and prothrombin level which then lead to liver necrosis causing jaundice and hypoglycemia.

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Tramadol poisoning

Tramadol is a drug known to treat moderate or severe pains in the body. It has two different mechanism in the body. Firstly, this drug binds with u-opioid receptor. Secondly, it inhibits the reuptake of nor epinephrine and serotonin in the body. wiki commons by Deviation, under~CC BY-SA 3. 0 This drug is regarded as one of the most dangerous drug in the world with a high increase in adverse effect. Come to think of it, many men and women who engage themselves in high labour have taken this drug to be a means of their strength without knowing that tramadol is a deadly drug which is known to have multiple side effect in the body.

One bad aspect of this drug is it ability to cause liver problem, confusion, nausea, constipation and urinary retention. it lead to hepatitis and high blood pressure which is mainly likely to cause death of an individual. This drug has caused a lot of problem in the world due to it's high intake by careless drug users and people who takes the drug in replacement of Indian hemp. Gentamicin poisoningMost drugs now a days are very deadly most especially when taken without prescription. Gentamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotics. This drug is always accompanied by a serious side effect which may result to permanent deafness. wiki commons by LHcheM under~CC BY-SA 3. 0 A lot of predicament has been reported due to gentamycin intake or prolong use of this drug. Medication that have shown to be effective in a particular individual may turn out to be ineffective in others. Sometimes a drug that is found effective may also be harmful in another individual. Human variability in drug therapy have contributed to the major challenges in clinical practice. Most time differences in genetics, age and gender are the major reason behind this disparity. In other words, some drugs can be rendered ineffective may be due to intake of food. It can be as a result of drug combination where a particular drug will render other drugs inactive.

Food-Drug interactions

Like I said earlier, food intake can alter the bioavailability of drugs in different means. This happens when food act at the same receptor site as a drug causing additives and synergism. Take for instance, when a drug that contains lithium are taken in combination with food that fluctuate in sodium. This drug ingestion leads to high increase in blood lithium level and cause decrease in the sodium. When this happens, it will result to neurotoxicity. Also, a drug that is not too active are not meant to be taken with food, reason being that intake of food with this drug renders the drug ineffective resulting to what we called placebo. But not in all case. Caution: I will always advise any individual to meet a doctor for proper prescription to avoid taking a harmful drug.

Drug - Drug Interaction

Sometimes, when a drug is combined together. One drug will suppress the action of the other drug. This combination of drugs can also cause over reaction of that drug in the body or may alter the way another drug is metabolized in the body. Take for instance, a drug called Rifampicin which is meant to up regulate the liver enzyme is taken with Warfarin an anticoagulant which is a substrate. This combination will term to reduce Warfarin automatically due to increase in metabolic activity of cytochrome p- 2c9.

Drug -disease interactions

When a patient is suffering from a particular sickness, there are some certain drugs which may not be necessary for the person may be due to his/her present condition. In such case it is always good to take another means of medication rather than taking a drug that will worsen the person’s ailment. Take for instance, a beta blocker eye drop which is meant to cure glaucoma because of its effect in lowering eye pressure. If a patient who have both asthma and glaucoma, do you think this drug will be good for the person. The answer is no, reason being that beta blocker eye drop will cause breathing to be more difficult for that person. Because of this reason, an alternative drug is preferred. ConclusionIf an individual is meant to take a particular drug. It is very necessary if that drug is being prescribed by a doctor who will examine your body to know if such drug will result to an adverse effect or not. With these, the rate of drug toxicity in the world will reduce. I will stop here by repeating the words of Paracelsus "the dose makes the poison ".

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