Arab-Israeli Conflict: Political and Socio-Economic Development Perspective

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This conflict begins after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire lost control of the Middle East. The land was divided and European states were given jurisdiction or control over the region. Partition In 1947, the United Nations announced a plan to divide Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state. The Jews agreed, but the Arabs pledged to do everything necessary to prevent the implementation of the UN plan.

Background Study

Some have called this conflict the Middle East conflict to refer to its concentration in the Middle East, but the term is a little vague because of the existence of several conflicts in the Middle East, but the Arab-Israeli conflict remains central and central between them. This conflict is organically related to the subject of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Its central issue is the establishment of a religious national state for the Jews on the land of Palestine. Yasser Arafat, Bill Clinton and Yitzhak Rabin in Oslo from the signing ceremony on September 13, 1993.

It is considered by many Arab analysts and politicians to be the cause of this region's crisis and tension. Although this conflict takes place within a relatively small geographical area, it receives considerable political and media attention due to the involvement of many international parties in it and often the world's superpowers are involved in it. For its position in a sensitive area of the world and its association with problematic issues that constitute the peak of crises of the contemporary world: such as the conflict between East and West, the relationship of religions with each other: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Arab relations with the West and the importance of Arab oil to Western countries, the importance and sensitivity of the Jewish issue in the civilization Endodontic especially after the Second World War and the Holocaust and Jewish issues of anti-Semitism and the forces of the pressure of Jewish lobbies in the Western world. On the Arab level, many Arab intellectuals, theorists and even politicians consider the issue of the Arab-Israeli conflict to be the central issue and crisis in the region. Many political and economic issues, human rights crises and the suppression of political freedoms in the neighboring countries are linked by the politicians of these regimes to the Arab-Israeli conflict and not to allow those called 'traitors' to deal with Israel, 'the biggest enemy of the Arabs.'

This issue is a major issue raised by many Western governments, especially the United States of America, which is the issue of peace. Since President Anwar Sadat signed the Camp David Accords, the Oslo Accords between the PLO led by Yasser Arafat and the assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. Wadi Araba between Jordan and Israel A new polarization has emerged between the Arab regimes between each other. With Israel, or what is abbreviated in the popular culture of 'Jews'

Significance of the Study

There is a gap in the research when it comes to conflict resolution and solutions. Many authors are biased towards Israel, very few literature is found favouring Palestine. this is why I’m doing my study, because i want to also talk about the solutions and provide a balanced view instead of just supporting Israel.

Conceptual Framework

In my research paper I will use 4 concepts and it can be more but for now iam using 4 only. first one is International conflict this term referred to conflicts between different nation-states and conflicts between people and organizations in different nation-states. Like the conflict between Palestine and Israel and how they still in this situation until now (Heidi Burgess, 2013)

Second National Identity is constructed and conveyed in discourse, predominantly in narratives of national culture. National identity is thus the product of discourse (Wodak et al. 1999). Like Israel and palatine both of them search for their identity to build their nation and also how they want approve they identity. Third Negotiation Bargaining (give and take) process between two or more parties (each with its own aims, needs, and viewpoints) seeking to discover a common ground and reach an agreement to settle a matter of mutual concern or resolve a conflict. (Anon., n. d. ). Like what happing now between Israel and Palestine their try to negotiation to find a solution that can both agree with.

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Forth Geopolitics is a a study of the influence of such factors as geography, economics, and demography on the politics and especially the foreign policy of a state and a governmental policy guided by geopolitics and also a combination of political and geographic factors relating to something (such as a state or particular resources). ( Merriam Webster, 2017)

Limitations of Study

As mention above, there is lack of funding is prominent in research when it comes to solutions and resolutions moreover the study faces limitation of the primary sources data collection because of some researchers stand with Israel against palatine. And when it comes to interviews not all the people can respond so there is difficulty to interview them.

Literature Review

According to Karim Makdisiis Associate Professor of International Politics in the Department of Political Studies and Public Administration at the American University of Beirut (AUB) is his paper PALESTINE AND THE ARAB–ISRAELI CONFLICT: 100 YEARS OF REGIONAL RELEVANCE AND INTERNATIONAL FAILURE(2018) This paper confirms that the Arab-Israeli conflict, especially the question of Palestine, has The main issue of regional concern has been in the Middle East for over a century. Claim it Failure to resolve the question of Palestine will continue to affect the stability of the region Its geopolitical dynamics and the formation of public opinion while limiting the choices of Arab leaders. Firstly, Putting the Arab-Israeli conflict as a key regional issue in the historical context - which is crucial. This paper also asserts that the Arab–Israeli conflict, and in particular the question of Palestine, has been the major issue of regional concern across the Middle East for over a century. It claims that the failure to resolve the question of Palestine will continue to impact on the region’s stability and its geopolitical dynamics and to shape popular opinion while limiting Arab leaders’ options. It first situates the Arab–Israeli conflict as a core regional issue in historical context – which is crucial for understanding where we are today – before critically reviewing the Oslo “peace process” and its failure to deliver a just and sustainable peace within the framework of a “two-state solution”. It suggests that this failure has resulted in the ramping up of lingering regional problems (e. g. southern Lebanon, the Golan Heights, refugees and in Palestine itself) and the rise of new challenges and frameworks (e. g. the Resistance Axis and the BDS movement). It concludes that the time has come for the international community – including the European Union, which has contributed to the failure of the two-state solution – to consider alternative paradigms and actions.

According to Joachim 0. Ronall (in his article The Arab-Israel Conflict in Perspective In the Autumn, 1967, issue Aharon Cohen and I. A. Abbady discussed the implications of the Six-Day War and the pre-requisites for a lasting peace between Israel and her Arab neighbours. The following article by Joachim 0. Ronall is based on a lecture given by the author at the New York Herzl Institute on November 2, 1967, the 50th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration. The articles by Dr. Levenberg and Professor Bentwich have also a direct bearing on the subject of the 'Great Debate'.

According to Carol Migdalovitz is Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs in Congressional Research Service this article name Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U. S. Policy(2010) in this paper highlighted negotiations between the Israeli and the Arab and the role of US in the conflict and US policy. After the first Gulf war, in 1991, a new peace process consisting of bilateral negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon achieved mixed results. Milestones included the Israeli-Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Declaration of Principles (DOP) of September 13, 1993, providing for Palestinian empowerment and some territorial control, the Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty of October 26, 1994, and the Interim Self-Rule in the West Bank or Oslo II accord of September 28, 1995, which led to the formation of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to govern the West Bank and Gaza Strip. However, Israeli-Syrian negotiations were intermittent and difficult, and postponed indefinitely in 2000. Israeli-Lebanese negotiations also were unsuccessful, leading Israel to withdraw unilaterally from south Lebanon on May 24, 2000. President Clinton held a summit with Israeli and Palestinian leaders at Camp David on final status issues that July, but they did not produce an accord. A Palestinian uprising or intifadah began in September. On February 6, 2001, Ariel Sharon was elected Prime Minister of Israel, and rejected steps taken at Camp David and afterwards. and also Congress is interested in issues related to Middle East peace because of its oversight role in the conduct of U. S. foreign policy, its support for Israel, and keen constituent interest. It is especially concerned about U. S. financial and other commitments to the parties, and the 111th Congress is engaged in these matters. Congress also has endorsed Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel, although U. S. Administrations have consistently maintained that the fate of the city is the subject of final status negotiations.

According Zack Beauchamp is a senior correspondent at Vox, where he covers global politics and ideology, and a host of Worldly, in his paper where published in 2018 highlighted the relation between Israel and Palestine and Why are they fighting they Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs both want the same land. And a compromise has proven difficult to find. Israel is the world’s only Jewish state, located just east of the Mediterranean Sea. Palestinians, the Arab population that hails from the land Israel now controls, refer to the territory as Palestine, and want to establish a state by that name on all or part of the same land. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is over who gets what land and how it’s controlled. Though both Jews and Arab Muslims date their claims to the land back a couple thousand years, the current political conflict began in the early 20th century. Jews fleeing persecution in Europe wanted to establish a national homeland in what was then an Arab- and Muslim-majority territory in the Ottoman and later British Empire. The Arabs resisted, seeing the land as rightfully theirs. An early United Nations plan to give each group part of the land failed, and Israel and the surrounding Arab nations fought several wars over the territory. Today’s lines largely reflect the outcomes of two of these wars, one waged in 1948 and another in 1967.

The 1967 war is particularly important for today’s conflict, as it left Israel in control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, two territories home to large Palestinian populations. Today, the West Bank is nominally controlled by the Palestinian Authority and is under Israeli occupation. This comes in the form of Israeli troops, who enforce Israeli security restrictions on Palestinian movement and activities, and Israeli “settlers, ” Jews who build ever-expanding communities in the West Bank that effectively deny the land to Palestinians. Gaza is controlled by Hamas, an Islamist fundamentalist party, and is under Israeli blockade but not ground troop occupation. The primary approach to solving the conflict today is a so-called “two-state solution” that would establish Palestine as an independent state in Gaza and most of the West Bank, leaving the rest of the land to Israel. Though the two-state plan is clear in theory, the two sides are still deeply divided over how to make it work in practice. The alternative to a two-state solution is a “one-state solution, ” wherein all of the land becomes either one big Israel or one big Palestine. Most observers think this would cause more problems than it would solve, but this outcome is becoming more likely over time for political and demographic reasons.

According to Herbert C. Kelman Professor of Social Ethics, Emeritus at Harvard University. He is known for his work in the Middle East including a 1989 off-the-record meeting between members of the P. L. O. and Israeli politicians and academics in an effort to bring the two sides closer on important issues his paper highlight The Political Psychology of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and How Can We Overcome the Barriers To a Negotiated Solution. Six political-psychological assumptions are presented as the basis for this paper's argument that direct Israeli-Palestinian negotiations are necessary and possible and for its delineation of the requirements of such negotiations. The last of these assumptions- that neither party will enter negotiations that leave its right to national existence in doubt- is linked to the psychological core of the conflict: its perception by the parties as a zero-sum conflict around national identity and existence. This view has led to a mutual denial of each other's identity and right to exist and systematic efforts to delegitimize the other. Such efforts have undermined the steps toward negotiation that leaders on both sides have in fact taken because each defines the negotiating framework in ways that are profoundly threatening to the other. Negotiations are possible only in a framework of mutual recognition, which makes it clear that recognition of the other's rights represents assertion, rather than abandonment, of one's own rights. Such negotiations can be facilitated through a prenegotiation process conducive to differentiation of the enemy image, including a breakdown of the monolithic view of the enemy camp, a distinction between the enemy's ideological dreams and operational programs, and a differentiation between negative and positive components of the other's ideology and symbols of legitimac (Herbert C. Kalman, 1986)

Research Methodology

This is Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research. Qualitative Research is also used to uncover trends in thought and opinions, and dive deeper into the problem. Qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. Some common methods include focus groups (group discussions), individual interviews, and participation/observations. The sample size is typically small, and respondents are selected to fulfil a given quota. (Susan E. DeFranzo, 2011)

Qualitative research that utilizes secondary sources and data readily available in the public domain. It relies on databases such as MENARA Working Papers, MERIP, Congressional Research Service, JSTOR, VOX, Emerald Insight and Taylor & Francis for the acquisition of journal articles for gathering and content analysis of said research and data.

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