Americas Personality During the Events of 1940s

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America has always been known to be a very violent country due to there being lots of murders being made every day and crimes. In the 1940s the US faced many events such as the Pearl Harbor attack, the USS Arizona sinkage and failure in the Military Establishment. These problems made the US want to respond in a violent manner such as wanting to create the world's first atomic bomb so they could respond back to the Japanese by hitting Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The US also felt the need to bring back the Selective Service and Training Act so it could drive more people into fighting in the war as well as acknowledging the UN to be formed in the US to protect the country. In the years 1940-1949, America was in a violent mindset reflected through International Relations & Military and Domestic Politics of the 1940s.

International Relations & Military is a hot topic in the U.S., with america facing national and international conflicts everyday. Pearl Harbor was a series of attacks by the Japanese on the day of December 7th. The Japanese surprise attack destroyed the US military base with tons of explosives and bombs. The Japanese bombing lead there to be many soldiers being killed and citizens. “2043 U.S. military personnel and civilians were killed, 1178 people were wounded and Japanese lost 29 aircrafts” (Pearl Harbor Attack). Many warships and aircrafts were either damaged or sunk during the attack. “Eighteen warships were damaged, including eight battleships, and 188 Army and Navy aircraft were destroyed” (Pearl Harbor Attack). During the attack the Japanese had numerous amount of aircrafts rapidly dropping bombs on Pearl Harbor. “Nagumo’s first wave consisted of 49 bombers, 40 torpedo bombers, 51 dive-bombers, and 43 fighters, this was followed by a second wave, made up of 54 bombers, 78 dive-bombers, and 36 fighters” (Axelrod).

The USS Arizona was the largest naval ship during the time but was sunk during the Pearl Harbor Attack. The Arizona was destroyed from one of the Japanese aircrafts releasing a bomb into it destroying the entire ship causing it to capsize. “An 800- kilogram (1800-pound) bomb had penetrated the Arizona's armored deck and struck its powder storage compartment, detonating tone of explosives, the huge vessel shuddered lifted nearly 20 feet out of water and blew apart” (PH-Attack). Before the attack had happened soldiers were asleep on board of the ship. “Aboard the USS Arizona nearly 1000 officers and enlisted men were on board followed by a frantic alarm call” (Davenport).

Soldiers that were in the Arizona at the time had been trapped beneath it and ended dieng. “The vessel was all but unrecognizable as it slipped below the water what had been a tomb for an estimated 960 people” (Davenport). An important cause for Pearl Harbor to occur was from the Military failing to establish itself for the attack. The military and government officials did not take action in time enough to stop Japanese aircrafts from going into the military base. “Also given too little attention was an incident involving a minesweeper on patrol that spotted a midget Japanese submarine a mile and a half off Pearl Harbor, another US ship alerted to the threat, but navy headquarters were not alerted to the situation for more than an hour” (Uschan 11).

The US’s commander and chief was warned days prayer but underestimated the attack from the Japanese. “Kimmel and Short had been advised to prepare exactly for the type of assault Yamamoto were planning, neither took the warning signs to hart”(Davenport). They also thought that Hawaii where Pearl Harbor was located was to far away from Japan which would be almost impossible for them to attack. “The prediction made by the Secretary of the Interior; there is going to be no attack on Hawaii, its to far away” (Davenport).

The US had violent way of wanting to respond to the Japanese which was using the world's first atomic bomb to strike Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The US dropped their first atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6th. The atomic bomb was carried by a B-29 aircraft dropped onto a hospital. “A tremendous flash of light cut across the sky Mr. Tanimoto has a distinct reallocation that it traveled from east to west, Mr. Tanimoto's mother in law saw the flash and heard a tremendous explosion he was 20 miles from Hiroshima” (Rose 388). The Hiroshima bombing consisted of many people disintegrating or dieng later on from the poisonous gas.

“Early estimates placed the death toll on about 100,000 that included those dying at the end of 1945” (Carlisle). The only thing that was left was rubble leaving everything else destroyed. “In effect the city was ruined instantly, All fire departments, police stations and schools were all demolished” (Carlisle). The second US second atomic bomb was soon dropped on a later date on the city of Nagasaki. The Japanese refused to surrender after the first bombing which led to a second atomic bomb being dropped which finally led to the Japanese surrendering. “At noon on August, emperor Hirohito announced his country’s surrender in a radio broadcast” (Bombing of Hirosh & Nagas). The second atomic bomb was less powerful than the one dropped on Hiroshima. “Due to a number of factors, the effect of the weapon was less than that at Hiroshima” (Carlisle).

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The Manhattan Project was soon developed to be a secret project by the government to develop the world's first atomic bomb which was soon to be used on the Japanese if it worked. Developing the atomic bomb consisted of numerous people working on this project in order for it to be made as quickly as possible. It consisted of a lot of research and alot of atomic energy in order for it to work. “The Manhattan Project involved basic scientific research into the nature and capabilities of atomic energy” (Roberts). Developing the a-bomb was very difficult for scientists to create due to the short amount of time they had. “Throughout the project, the Los Alamos scientists had encountered countless obstacles and setbacks” (Roberts). The scientists created two types of atomic bombs during the development of the Manhattan Project. “They had succeeded in designing two types of atomic bombs, although the scientists were not entirely sure their inventions would work” (Roberts).

The next stage of the Manhattan Project was preparation for the Trinity Test which consisted of open land, and buildings to be set by engineers. “Bainbridge stacked out an 18 by 24 mile- area in south central New Mexico, workers soon began construction on several buildings at the Trinity site” (Roberts). The Trinity Test also consisted of evacuation plans for New Mexico residents as well. “In case of massive radioactive fallout, he created an evacuation plan to get New Mexico residents to safety” (Sonneborn). “The Trinity Test was the name for the first explosion of the atomic bomb. The Trinity Test was conducted to see if the atomic bomb was successful which it was, in the final stage of the Manhattan Project. “A tremendous burst of light filled the morning sky, after the initial blast of light, the observers watched a huge ball of debris rise and spread” (Sonneborn).

Domestic Politics are what make America what it is, from laws being issued by the government to protect the U.S. In the 1940s the government issued certain laws to protect the U.S. from violent cases such as war. President Roosevelt's acknowledgement towards the UN was for protection of the United States. Roosevelt acknowledged the use of the United Nations to prevent the US from getting into another war. “President Roosevelt arrived in San Francisco to deliver, a historic speech at the founding conference of the United Nations, Roosevelt Hailed the U.N Charter as the world's best hope for avoiding yet another war” (Hill). The United Nations purpose in the U.S is to protect and secure the country amongst other nations. “Four main goals of the United Nations was to main peace and security, and develop friendly relations” (United Nations).

Different Bodies of the UN were soon to be created as well, to take on different problems or roles. The Different Bodies of the UN consists of the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, International Court of Justice, Secratarist, and the Trusteeship council. “The General Assembly; the main policymaking body of the UN, Security Council; overseas measures that ensure peace and security, Economic and Social Council; makes policies & recommendations regarding economic, social environmental issues, and the International Court of Justice; was originally created to supervise the 11 trust territories that were placed under the management of 7 member states, Secratarist, the secretariat is made up of the Secretary- General and thousands of U.N staffers” (History of the UN).

The Selective Service and Training Act was issued on June 1948 which was a way of making young men serve in the war. Typically men between the ages of 18 and 26 were required to register for the draft. “Federal US legislation enacted it on June 1948, that provided for the military registration of male citizens and US residents between the ages of 18 and 26; only those between 19 and 26 were liable for training service” (Kohn). Many men were deferred because of medical reasons or family positions. “By the wars end, of the 22 million registrations between ages 18 and 38, had received deferments for a variety of reasons, mostly for family status infirmity, or occupation” (Miller). Many men were removed from the draft because they did not meet the age requirements or appealed to not be in the war. “The Federal Bureau of Investigation checked on 373,000 draft evaders and obtained 16,000 convictions, in addition 4.5 million men of the 36 million appealed their classifications” (Miller).

The Selective Service System’s purpose was to ensure that the military was prepared for any conflicts. During World War II the selective service system made it easier for the military to receive more soldiers. “The selective service system performed well during World War II and ensured that the military received the number and quality of men it requested rapidly and efficiently” (Miller). The Draft works through a lottery pick by the government. For an example, the citizens register first and then the government randomly selects people through a lottery which will determine if you will be in the military. “The Selective Service System administered the draft through 6443 local boards and 505 appeal boards, it oversaw the registration of men through selection by lottery” (Miller).

The War Relocation Authority is a agency created by the government which made relocation centers or camps, to hold Japanese Americans. After Pearl Harbor President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order. The order issued Japanese americans to be relocated. “President Roosevelt as commander in chief issued an Executive Order which had the effect of relocating all persons of Japanese ancestry” (Jap-Rel during WWII).

Relocation Centers were the places the Japanese were being sent. Japanese were held there and the camps were separated from other places. “Relocation centers were situated many miles inland, often in remote and desolate locates, sites included Tule Lake, California; Mindoka, Idaho; Manzanar, California; Topaz Utah and etc” (Jap-Rel during WWII). Idea of the War Relocation Authority, the specific ideas were from a meeting amongst Franklin D.Roosevelt and his advisors. “The idea for the agency came from a meeting among Franklin D. Roosevelt's top advisors on February 27, 1942” (FDR Approves Military Draft).

America had a violent mindset through International Relations and Military as well as Domestic Politics in the 1940s. Throughout the 40s many events occurred such as a sneak attack by the Japanese, the USS Arizona sinkage, military establishment failures, the first atomic bomb being made and dropped, the United Nations being created, the draft being brought back and War Relocation Centers being made after the war.

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