The Rebuild and Architecture of Paris from the French Revolution to World War I

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Paris is the most beautiful city in France. It is the capital city of France. Paris has a wide historical background. It is situated in the north part of the center of France, at the bank of Seine river. Seine river divide Paris into two halves, the left bank has cultural and modern development and the right side has universities, parks and historical places. The city is full of Sights and tourist’s attraction, including charming architecture, numerous parks, brides and squares. There are more than 130 museums and 1800 historic places there. Everyone heard about the fact that Paris is the City of love and Romance, and every couple wants to go at least once in a lifetime to visit the city and the beautiful museums that are hosted there.

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Paris was rebuilt in 1852-1870, the idea of rebuilding came from the enlightenment, The Making of a Modern City thoroughly portrays the transformation of Paris during the 19th century from a crowded and congested medieval town of narrow and winding streets to an important European capital city of beauty and romantic association, famous for its wide-open boulevards, straight geometric streets, and elegant architecture. During a time of industrial change and cultural advancement, Paris became the new home for many, overcrowding the ancient districts. Paris had poor infrastructure, poor sewer system, which pollutes the water, in results of various disease. The tight confines of Medieval Paris were hindering the city’s potential for growth and desire to transform into a well-organized urban center. So, the enlighteners thinker think that Paris needs to rebuild because France spends lots of money on the exploration and on the wars. In results, France has a poor economy that's why they want to encourage the local business through tourism by building the new Paris with the rebuild of historical places and with the new architecture. So, they will get money/tax from visitors and from the local business through hotels, schools, resorts, restaurants, museums, café, hospitals, etc. For encouraging the local business or for making the powerful economy, the Napoleon built the national bank of France, the bank provides loans to the community for business with a fare interest rate, which will lead to the strong economy. During the period known as the Second Empire (1852-70) Napoleon III, the great-nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte (emperor of France in the early nineteenth century), ruled France. He appointed an administrator, Baron Georges-Eugene Haussmann, to modernize Paris. Haussmann built numerous reservoirs, tunnels, and elevated aqueducts for providing fresh drinking water for the city. He created dozens of beautiful parks, using elaborate hydraulic engineering, as well as an extensive and efficient sewer network. Because with the urbanization in Paris, the condition of the city become worse with poor infrastructure, poor sewer system, which pollutes fresh water. Haussmann molded the city into a geometric grid, with new streets running east and west, north and south, divide Paris into 20 arrondissements (districts or sectors).

Paris is famous for the architecture in the world. The famous and the oldest architecture of Paris is Arc de Triomphe. It is also known as the symbol of nationalism. This was built by Napoleon for his victories and to respect those who fight and die for France. During and after the revolution, the middle class began a slow and measured turn from the symbols of the church and royal court to their evolving life, language and arts. By and large, though, they did not require that their new symbols be based in any notion of Frenchness grounded in radically distinct French phenomena. Repeatedly, French architects represented the French nation through compositions derived from international classicism. One of the most comprehensive and enduring, with respect to its historical evolution, was the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. “It is located in the center of Paris, standing on an elevation at the end of the Avenue des Champs Élysées and it is formed by the intersection of 12 radiating avenues.” The arch is a monument for all who fought for France, especially during the Napoleonic wars. Construction of the arc was begun in 1806 on August 15, on Napoleons birthday and the arc is completed in 1836. “It is 164 ft (50 m) high, 148 ft (45 m) wide, and 72 ft (22 m) deep, with colossal symbolic groups flanking the arch.” Several events and things were represented the arch a symbol of nationalism to every Frenchman. French and Allied troops marched in huge victory parades under the arch on July 14, 1919, and again on June 18, 1945. One of the happiest hours came Aug. 26, 1944, when Paris was liberated, and Gen Charles de Gaulle was acclaimed. In addition, inside walls of this monument, there is a list of the names of 660 people who die for France, among which are 558 French generals of the First French Empire. Moreover, “In 1920 the body of an unknown French soldier of World War I was interred beneath the arch, and a perpetual flame was lighted.” On Bastille Day and other holidays, a French flag is draped from top to bottom, illuminated with red, white and blue searchlights. Sculpture decorates the arch. There are bands of ornamental stonework on the upper third of the structure. Shields are inscribed with the names of principal battles of the republic. Now, French people feel sense of belonging with Arc de Triomphe, Arc become their identification of their nation.

The next most famous and most visited architecture of Paris is The Eiffel Tower, which comes in the seven wonders of worlds. Eiffel tower has a unique history, it was named after Gustav Eiffel, who designed and built the tower in 1889. It was constructed to celebrate the century of the French Revolution and to demonstrate France's industrial prowess to the world. In addition, Paris hosted the World’s Fair and wanted to mark the occasion with something truly spectacular. The structure was to be used as the gateway for the World’s Fair – the entrance to the exposition – so it needed to be something truly incredible. The work of Eiffel tower started on 28 January 1887 and it took more than two years to complete. It was made of puddle iron. Because there was no more building made with steel in the world. All the buildings are made of stone like Arc de Triomphe, Louvre museums, etc. As proof of the advancement and power of French industrialism. France built the Eiffel Tower with iron. It was the tallest and first metal structure in the world. Even to contemporary eyes, the Eiffel Tower is unique. But in the late 19th century, nothing had been seen like it. “Modern architecture was emerging slightly in Paris before the Eiffel Tower. But it was doing it in a very shy way, Iron, which was newly popular as a building material because of the Industrial Revolution, became a cornerstone of modern architecture. But in 1887, it had only appeared internally, as support structures, or in unimportant buildings like hothouses, factories and bridges,” but after the Eiffel Tower world start adopting the steel materialled buildings and houses. There are lots of advantages of making Eiffel Tower with steel such as solidity (less effect from natural disaster), ease of implementation (time saving easily to install), money saving (require less labor force) and modularity. Its height is 317 meters and it has three floors.

It opened to the public on May 15, 1889. Apart from the structure, The Eiffel Tower is considered as a symbol of love and many women dream to have the engagement in Paris in front of Eiffel Tower. Every couple that arrives in Paris wants to come to the Eiffel Tower. There are thousands of marriage proposals every year made at the Eiffel Tower. When it is lit up at the night, it gives a true treat to the eyes. This spectacular sight becomes appealing due to the flashing lights used on the tower, it looked so romantic, the location in the heart of the city, the impressive view of the city from the top of the Tower. A beautiful café with a public viewing space is located on the top floor of Eiffel Tower. There is a limit to the number of visitors on the highest floor of this tower. It is also very helpful for the increase in the economy of France through tourism. Many visitors come to this place to enjoy breathtaking views. It has got a title of ‘Symbol of Love’ due to its superb construction and outstanding views. Once you visit this place, you would never want to leave it ever. Eiffel Tower is a place that comes in the mind before any place when we decide to visit any location with our beloved or life partner. Though it is beautiful the title of ‘Symbol of Love' helps this place to grab more tourists from around the world. “More than 7 million people visit this iconic tower every year, according to the attraction's official website. Since the tower's 1889 opening, 250 million people from around the world have enjoyed all that the Eiffel Tower has to offer.”

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