The Main Facts about Organ Transplantation

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Introduction

As part of our Cellular Organization Unit, we have learned that specialized cells form tissues, which in turn make up organs - structures of distinct functions, vital to the survival of every multicellular organism. Advances in Medicine and Technology have made it possible to remove a failing or damaged organ in the human body and replace it with a new one. This procedure is called organ transplantation. Portions of organs or tissues can also be replaced by grafting. Organs and tissues can be donated by either recently deceased people or living persons. Organs and tissues may also have an animal origin or they can be artificial. Most of the people in the world are aware that there are organizations that consist of helping a human being in need of an organ, to get a second chance in life. These organizations are willing to help people, no matter the race, wealth, social status, gender, etc. The organ transplantation is not a system that operates worldwide, instead, it is established inside a country. They are trying to encourage people to donate their organs once they pass away to help others who are in need of them. To give the audience a bit more understanding I would like to explain some basics, for example, some common questions: “What is a cell?”, “What is tissue?”, “What is an organ?”, “How does the organ-system work?”, “What is an organism?”.

Cell

A cell can be described as the root to all living organisms, in other words, they are the root of composing the structure of an organism (such as the human being), take the nutrients from foods and carry out important functions. The human body is composed by trillions of cells all with their own specialized function. Cells in the human body are formed by a nucleus surrounded by a cytoplasm with mitochondrion inside of it. The cells can come together to form tissue and from there they can form organs such as the brain and heart.

Tissue

The tissue is basically a bunch of cells stuck together which form tissue, an example of tissue is the skin, the tissue (skin) get inflamed with an injury or allergic reactions. The tissue is mainly built by our cells to protect certain parts of hour body, just like the cell wall for a plant cell. Only this time it's our skin.

Organs

Organs are independent parts of your body, some organs are visible like your nose and feet but most are inside of your body which you'll most likely learn about them instead of seeing them, examples of organs that are inside of us would be; the heart, our stomach, the brain, etc. Certain organs help us with different tasks such as; breathing, going to the toilet, digesting food and much more. Organs are made of tissue which is made up of multiple cells.

Organ-System

In biology, an organ system is a group of organs working together for a certain function. Each organ does a particular job and is made up of certain tissues. In other words, the organ system is basically multiple organs doing one job, for an example, there is the digestive system (which consists of the stomach which is an organ) this system consists of the food being transformed into proteins and energy and then the waste (toxins) being removed.

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Organism

An organism is a living thing, a plant is an organism, an animal is an organism, we are an organism. All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth, and development. All of the previous levels of organisation of matter work together to keep an organism alive, in other words, they all work together to keep the host alive. They do this by repairing itself, extracting energy from food, flow blood across the body, giving oxygen to where it's needed. Tissue can be damaged naturally, what I mean by this is that tissue being damaged can lead to death or a bigger injury if it is not treated correctly. Like being out in the sun for too long can cause tissue damaged which could lead to skin cancer. Or having an injury which if it is not treated correctly it could get infected, and that infection could cause bigger damage leading to organ failure, which leads to death. But once an organ fails and it is not useful anymore it could mean serious trouble, like for example; some people have heart attacks, which is the failure of the general amount of blood that the heart pumps, some people can have surgery to treat the cause of failure but sometimes its too late and the patients might be in need of a new heart (organ). This is called organ transplantation.

Literature Review

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure which consists of an organ such as the heart being replaced by someone else's (organ donor) this is often lifesaving and gives the recipient a new wonderful lease of life. Organ transplant often takes place when a person has a failing organ, meaning that they need a new one. With the help of the advance in technology and medical knowledge, doctors are able to take a healthy organ from a recently deceased human being (who has signed up to donate their organs) and help another person to have a second chance in life. Organ transplantations are a very delicate procedure. The recipients need to be compatible with the donor meaning that, a thorough evaluation will be conducted at a transplant center, and if the person is a good candidate for a transplant, he/she will be put on a national transplant waiting list. Most of the time a national system matches people on the waiting list with donors based on; blood type, body size, how ill the patient is, distance from the donor, and waiting time on the list. In some cases, the waiting time is too long and the patient dies. In other cases, the patients are in need of an organ a family member can decide to give them theirs (if they are the same blood type) (generally the organ that is donated through family members is the kidney). They give the kidney because there two kidneys inside our bodies and so we are able to live without one, but with special care. To become eligible for organ transplantation in Qatar, you will be tested to see your current state of health. This is done because some people have damaged their organs during their lifetime, meaning that they will not be able to donate them. If you are the recipient, the requirements are; to be in need of a new organ. To become eligible for organ transplantation in Chile, as well as Qatar you will be observed and diagnosed. And doctors will judge if you are in need of a new organ based on your results. Transplantation will only take place if the parents accept the procedure, (which is most likely) then the insurance company will be called and will most definitely cover all expenses, in chile the health care of the people is one of the government's priorities this is why the government of Chile offers insurance. To become a donor you will be tested to see if the donatable organs are in good condition. Then you will be asked what organ you would like to donate. A requirement for donating an organ is to donate freely, meaning; that you will donate your organ(s) without knowing the person (possibly) or the cause. To become a donor you will have to be over the age of 18, if you are underage the parents are the ones to decide. To register to be a donor you can have to search where your local (legal) organ donation center is.

Impact of Transplants in a Local/Global Context

In the topic of biology there is such a disease called; Acute Coronary Syndrome it consists of plaque building up in the wall of the arteries that support blood to the heart. In other words, the blood gets clogged and does not flow properly leading to less oxygen in the certain muscle in the body. This can be treated by a special procidure that consists of a small balloon which has a sort of net at the outside. When the balloon gets inflated the net expands making space for blood to flow. Sometimes the plaque may get too large for this procedure to take place and the heart might start having a problem leading to consistent failure. This means that the patient will receive a heart transplant (if needed) This is considered to be the last option since a heart transplant involves a heart that is in good condition and can be cured going to waste.

Qatar

Mortality from CVD in 2011-2013 was 8.3 per 100,000 for Qatari males and 4.1 per 100,000 for non-Qatari males aged 20-44 years. CVD = Cardio Vascular disease

Chile

Of that 36 % are due to coronary heart disease and 36.3% from cerebrovascular disease (stroke). Science has helped in addressing this condition globally because it has brought people hope, what i mean by this is that because of advanced technology we have been able to keep our loved ones (them having a second chance of life) “The Gift Of Life”.

Discussion

The advantages of an organ transplant are:

  • Second chance in life
  • Feel Better
  • Better Recovery
  • Advanced Technology (easier)
  • Safe
  • Done by proffesionals
  • The disadvantages of an organ transplant are:
  • Will have to take medication for rest of life, (in some cases)
  • Chances of unsuccessful surgery/transplantation
  • No telling how much the waiting could be
  • Slight chance of death

One noticeable and difficult to miss impact with organs transplantation has to be the “Economical” side of it. Although organs are donated, you will have to recover at a hospital which comes with expenses that not many people can pay. Some people have the opportunity to get insurance (which they will cover all expenses), but other have very little money and do not have enough money to maintain a family member inside the hospital for full recovery meaning that the patient might miss out on the second go at ‘Life’. And the absolute worst part is that the medications have a cost as well meaning that many patients that come from unwealthy families will have fewer opportunities of survival/ full recovery.

Conclusion

In my opinion, I think that depending on how serious the operation is and the expenses of the medicine that come afterward for recovery, and successful organ transplantation, meaning that the surgery went well and the organ was accepted by the recipient's body. I think that there should be a discount for unwealthy families who are in need of financial help, what I am trying to infer from this is that that the expenses for unwealthy families should be reduced judging by the type of operation that was done on the patient.

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