The Effect of Carbohydrate Treatment on Fish Nutrients

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Preliminary

The right nutrition to support children's physical fitness consists of micronutrients and macronutrients. The need for micronutrients consists of minerals and vitamins. The minerals needed by the body are calcium, sodium, chloride, potassium, and iron, while the macronutrients consist of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Carbohydrates are widely found in plant foods in the form of simple sugars, hexoses, pentose and complex molecular weight carbohydrates such as starch, pectin, cellulose, and lignin. In livestock products, especially meat, carbohydrates are in the form of glycogen stored in muscle tissue and liver. Carbohydrates found in livestock meat consist of glycogen. Red meat contains small amounts of sugar (D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-ribose) which are extracting into meat broth. In milk carbohydrates are in the form of lactose, cow's milk contains about 5% lactose, but in dry skim milk contains more than 50% lactose. High carbohydrate consumption will increase the body's glycogen deposits, and the higher the glycogen stores will be the higher the activities that can be carry out, which will affect physical fitness (Hastuti and Zulaekah, 2009). The processing factor is also very influential to carbohydrate content. Cooking carbohydrates needed to get proper starch digestibility. When the starch is heated, starch granules swell and break so the starch is gelatinized (Sundari, 2015). In daily life, food processing needs to be done so that food is safe and has the nutritional value that can be utilized optimally and can be sensory acceptable which includes appearance (smell, taste, mouth feel, aftertaste) and texture (hardness, softness, consistency, elasticity, crispness). On the one hand, processing can produce food products with desirable traits that are safe, nutritious and can be receive well sensory. On the other hand, processing can also cause the opposite, namely to produce toxic compounds so that products become less or insecure, loss of nutrients and changes in sensory properties in a direction that is less preferred and less acceptable such as changes in color, texture, smell and tasteless or not liked. Thus, an optimization effort is need in processing so that what is desire is achieve and what is not desire is suppress to a minimum. For this reason, the important of knowledge on the effects of processing on nutritional value and food are safety. Even so, the more important thing is how to do food processing so that the food we produce is of high nutritional value and is safe. Judging from the processing of carbohydrates in the nutritional content of fish is very important, so this research needed to avoid nutrient deficiencies in Indonesia.

Benefits of Research

  1. Knowing the basic preservation of fish and cooking influence on the substance of carbohydrates to in order to obtain safe food and have nutritional value that can be utilized optimally and acceptable.
  2. Providing information about the importance of good food processing to produce good food products and grated.
  3. Knowing carbohydrate analysis in food and its methods for optimize the processing.

Materials and Methods

There is no specific method in processing carbohydrates in fish. Fish processing divided into 2 ways, namely:

  1. For preservation (drying, curing, freezing, canning, etc.)
  2. Food safety (kill microbial pathogens, eliminating antigenic and toxins)

Fish fumigation is one way of processing fish that serves to preserve and giving a distinctive aroma and taste derived from chemical compounds from the combustion of natural fuels. In general, smoking defined as one method of fish preservation, which is a combination of brining, cooking and smoking itself. Frequent tools used for the fumigation process is a traditional smoke furnace. Most people do fumigation of fish by using high temperatures in a relatively short time and using traditional furnaces where the distance between the fire source and fish is very close. Smoked fish processing traditional in general has not well and correctly so that it can affect the quality of fish smoke produced, where the quality affects the durability of smoked fish during the deep storage (Shabrina et al., 2014).

Fish canning is a complex system and consists of many processes that run sequentially. Several processes one of them involves processes with machines and humans have uncertain processing time. Production scale big make a real trial to get optimization from the system is not effective to do because of need long time and big cost (Sugiarto and Buliali, 2012). Freezing is one method to extend shelf life. This technology is quite simple and does not take up time, but can inhibit the growth of bacteria, mold, and water, which causes decay in food products. Compared with the heating method, the freezing method can be carry out faster and able to maintain the nutritional content of food if done correctly. There are two methods of rapid freezing, namely with liquid nitrogen (direct contact and indirect contact). Freezing with liquid nitrogen through direct contact includes dying and spraying. During this freezing was carried out using airblast freezing, causing weight loss of more than 4%, but with the cryogenic freezing method weight loss can be reduced to less than or equal to 0.5% (Amiarsi and Mulyawanti, 2013). In addition, other processes, while the method in analyzing carbohydrates in food divided into quantitative and qualitative (Winarno, 2004)

Quantitative

Proximate Analysis (roughly), carbohydrates including crude fiber calculated based on the following calculation:

% Carbohydrates = 100% -% (protein + fat + ash + water)

The result is often included in the list of ingredients food material.

Qualitative

  • Test molisch

The principle is dehydration carbohydrate compound by concentrated sulfuric acid.

If you develop a positive test purple red ring condensation product between furfural or hydroxymethyl furfural with alpha-naphthol in molish reagent.

  • Test Seliwanorff

Specific test KH containing ketone group is often called ketoses.

When heated of carbohydrates group containing Ketone will produce the red color in the solution.

  • Test Benedict

Common test for KH who have aldehyde or ketone group is free.

Benedict test is based on based on the reduction of Cu2+ to Cu + by aldehyde or ketone group in an atmosphere free of alkalis.

Added complexion agent such as citric or titrate to prevent precipitation of CuCO3

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Positive test solution characterized by the formation of green, red, orange or red brick and sediment

  • Test Barfoed

Indicate the presence of monosaccharaides in the sample.

Positive test indicated by the formation of red-orange precipitate

  • Test Iodine

Used to indicate the presence of a polysaccharide

The starch with iodine to form a blue complex

Amylopectin with iodine gives the red color purple

Whereas with glycogen and dextrin to form red-brown color.

  • Test Fehling

Indicate the presence of a reducing carbohydrate (monosaccharaides, lactose, maltose, etc.).

Positive test marked in red brick.

Ways of Preservation and Processing in the Post-Harvest Fisheries

Fish, during their lifetime, do not undergo a process of decay because fish have glycogen and natural defenses. Natural defense in fish can be formed physically (skin and scales) and physiologically (antibody). The decay process will occur as soon as the fish has died. This is because the fish's natural defense mechanism does not function normally. Since fish experience is death, a series of change processes will occur that all lead to a decrease in freshness and finally decay. The decrease in freshness is related to energy (glycogen) contained by fish. The change process can be inhibiting so that the freshness of the fish can be maintain longer. The fish will rot 12-20 hours after being capture or harvested, depending on the type and condition of the fish, how to catch, how handling and environmental conditions. Fish with high glycogen content can maintain their freshness longer. The condition of fish is affect by physical damage, the number of decay microbial populations. Physical damage to the body of the fish in the form of bruises due to collisions and wounds exposed to sharp objects is the entrance for decomposing microbes to overhaul fish meat. How to catch can cause fish to experience stress, due to harsh treatment, pressure or physical damage. When fish experience stress, fish need a lot of energy, so that the remaining glycogen is less. As a result, fish became easily reduce in freshness.

Handling can be in the form of weeding, cooling, and the use of certain chemical compounds. The environmental conditions in which handling is affected also affect the process of decline freshness of fish during storage. Sanitation, environmental temperature, and humidity are components that play a role in changes after a fish dies. The increasing environmental temperature will increase enzymatic activity and microbial decomposition, thus accelerating the process of decreasing fish freshness. Therefore, handling and storage must be carrying out at low temperatures. Fish stored at 5 C can maintain freshness so that it can be consume. Relatively high humidity is an environment that suits the needs of microbes, so microbial growth takes place quickly.

Fish is a food that is very easily damage, both biochemically and microbiology. Biochemical damage is drive by the activity of enzymes and biochemical reactions that are still ongoing in fresh fish. Microbiological damage caused by microbial activity. The fish body is a substrate for microbes because it provides compounds that can become nitrogen, carbon and other nutrients for their lives (Nugrahaeni,2017).

Cooking Influence on the Substance of Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates with hot water will gelatinized and the digestibility increases
  • Sugar with high temperatures will be caramel and the digestibility decrease

The effect of roasting on fish carbohydrates generally related to the occurrence of hydrolysis. For example, roasting will cause the gelatinization of starch, which will increase the digestive value. In contrast, the role of simple and complex carbohydrates in the Maillard reaction can reduce the availability of carbohydrates in roasted products. Maillard reaction (interaction of protein and reducing sugars) is a reaction between proteins and reducing sugars is the main source of decreasing the nutritional value of food proteins during processing and storage. Caramelization is a method of separation to obtain solids dissolved in a solution. The basis of this method is the solubility of the material in a solvent and the difference in freezing.

The extrusion process of HTST (high temperature, short time) known to affect the physical structure of raw starch granules, making it less crystalline, more water-soluble and easily hydrolyzed by enzymes. The process had known as cooking or gelatinization. Due to the condition of low humidity in the extruder, traditional gelatinization, which involves swelling and hydration of starch granules, does not occur.

If the heating of foodstuffs given the nutritional value of the materials will undergo changes, among others, flavor, color and texture. This caused by changes or damage to the nutritional quality of the components. The chemical changes in food will lead to physical changes in the groceries. Glycosides more easily hydrolyzed in acidic than alkaline conditions and tends to be stable. Carbohydrates tend to be unstable in acidic conditions, especially at high temperatures. Hydrolysis of starch can also be affect by pH, anomic configuration and size of the ring glucoses. The enzyme will remodel the protein into ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, carbohydrates into alcohol and fats into ketones and butyric acid.

Conclusion

The results of the effect carbohydrates treatment on fish nutrients is carbohydrates with hot water will gelatinized and the digestibility increases. The effect of roasting on fish carbohydrates generally related to the occurrence of hydrolysis. If the heating of foodstuffs given the nutritional value of the materials will undergo changes, among others, flavor, color and texture. This caused by changes or damage to the nutritional quality of the components.

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