Fluctuation Of Children Ratio Enrolment In Rural India
Gender disparities remain a critical issue in India impacting women and girls education, health and workforce participation. Between 2006 and 2010 only 26 % of girls completed secondary education, compared to 50% of boys. This inequality between genders is more pronounced among lower-income families. 78 % of boys are literate while only 55 % of girls can read and write (8), and women in India earn 56% of what their male colleagues earn for performing the same work (9). The state of gender inequality and its impact on women and girls differs significantly across states and regions in India being the northern States of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar followed by Rajasthan were is more noted (10).
Adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable in the States of UP AND Bihar, with over half of all adolescent girls married before de age of 18, up to 95 % dropping out of schools and over 50 % facing domestic violence. (10)Discriminatory gendered social norms-which are rooted in the collective beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes about what it means to be male and female- perpetuate the perceived inferior status of women and girls vis-à-vis men and boys. In India preference for sons’ starts at birth with child mortality being 61% higher for girls than boys (13). These social norms become more pronounced when the adolescent girl reaches puberty and menarche (10). Data shows that girls are often on par with boys up to adolescents, but with the onset of poverty, outcomes for girls begin to diverge. For example, the percentage of out-of-school boys and girls in the age group of 6-10 years, was 5. 51% and 6. 87%, respectively; however, for the adolescent age group 11-13 years, the percentage of out–to-school children was much higher among girls (10. 03%) than boys (6. 46%) (14). Studies show that lack of enrollment or withdrawal from school takes place for various reasons, including economic barriers, parental concerns about safety of the girls, poor quality of teaching, and community expectations (15).
In several communities, there are expectations that girls will help with domestic chores, learn to undertake household responsibilities, and get prepared for marriage. Community members often do not perceive any alternative roles for girls and prioritize these gender expectations aver sending girls to school, especially beyond the primary level (16). Girls are also more likely than boys to be married at an early age. Almost 50 % of young women aged 20-24 were married as children, i. e. , before age 18 (versus 10% of young men)(17). Early marriage is more common among rural adolescent girls as compared to girls in urban areas, and more common among poorer households (18) (19). Adolescents also experience early childbearing and parenting, with one in five young women aged 20-24 having her first child before age 18 (20).
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