Comparing The Hispanic And Arab Cultures
The definition of culture a customized way of thinking, social forms, religious, material traits of a racial, or social group. Culture is a what of living for generations of people who pass down values and morals to their children to uphold individuality between only them. Culture is our way of life. It contains our values, beliefs, customs, languages and traditions. Culture is replicated in our history, in our heritage and in what way we express thoughts and creativity. Our values measure our eminence of life, our vitality and the well-being of our society. Through our culture we grow a sense of belonging, individual and mental growth and the skill to empathize and tell each other. Direct aids of a solid and exciting culture include health and wellness, self-esteem, skills growth, social wealth and economic reoccurrence. New Brunswick’s cultural policy renewal will address how culture is looking after, reinforced, recorded and conserved, and how our culture is articulated and re-interpreted. It will touch on how we practice culture in our lives, the portion of the arts in making a vibrant social community, our normal, human and constructed heritage, and the role of culture as a monetary driver. Whether you go to a free concert in the park, visit a gallery, join a school play or sing in a chorus, culture is present in numerous aspects of our everyday lives. Culture is an important part of wellness and knowledge and can show a role in healing and social expansion. Artists and arts establishments are fundamental to the making of works of art, social events and festivals, goods and industries. Authors, theatre companies, dancers, musicians, filmmakers, businesses or teachers, artists and arts organizations are at the heart of many of the cultural creations that we enjoy. Creative industries and enterprises are extremely significant aspects of our provincial and national economy. Wealth is generated by cultural workers, small businesses, sole proprietors, non-profit organizations, media and marketing companies, and cultural tourism industries. The artistic economy depends on expert cultural workers to produce new concepts, enterprises and businesses. It also helps entice new immigrants and benefits retention of our present citizens. Our historical and modern buildings, museums, monuments, libraries, burial sites and revered places, archaeology, artifacts and files are all serious features in our culture and our heritage. Our living heritage, our backgrounds, duties and practices along with our ordinary heritage, add to the inheritance of our lineages that are portions of the identity and social life that we share.
The first culture that will be discussed is the Hispanic culture. The meaning of Hispanic is used to specify an assembly of ancient Hispania, the Roman name of the Iberian Peninsula. In current times, and explicitly in the United States, the word takes on a diverse meaning. This word represents the philosophy that is used by people who speak Spanish in Latin American countries; countries that were previously lead by the Kingdom of Spain. Countries like Haiti or Brazil are also considered parts of Latin America, but Spanish is not the primary language spoken. Latin America has consisted of countries that have Romance languages that are mainly spoken such as Spanish, Portuguese, and French. Hispanic American groups are at a higher risk of health problems. Diabetes is a pertinent concern for Hispanic Americans who are at a greater risk of being diagnosed with the illness. (Harris et al. , 1998). There is also a large population of Hispanic Americans living with obesity problems. There are many issues such as socioeconomic status, education that contribute to the way that Hispanics deal with health concerns. These individuals hold strong beliefs that play a crucial role in the way that they belief healing should work. Technology is advancing but Curandersmo is a practice used by Hispanic Americans. Some Hispanics believe that their health concerns are an outcome of God’s will, some do not have adequate resources to address health concerns and they use herbal methods of healing. Herbs and rituals are used to heal sickness of the body, mind, and spirit. For chronic illness these methods do not work which eventually cause more sickness. Many diabetic Hispanic Americans, for example, need insulin to live. Cultural disbelief of medicines that are not accepted, they may reject the treatment (Harris, 2001), choosing outdated folk remedies instead. A cultural doubt of medicines that are not natural (Harris, 2001) may lead to self-treatment with folk remedies that can worsen their health conditions.
Arab culture is the principles of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Arabian Sea in the east, and the Mediterranean Sea. Language, literature, gastronomy, art, architecture, music, spirituality, philosophy, mysticism is all shared of in the culture of the Arabs. The Arab influence is seen across 22 countries and contains over 200 million people. Arab is a term utilized to be individually for those of the Arabian Peninsula but with the development of Arab caliphates in the earlier times, it’s used to define the people whose native language is Arabic. Arab now is a traditional term, not a racial term, and Arabic people originate from various ethnic and religious backgrounds. The 22 Arab countries are Algeria, Bahrain, the Comoros Islands, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. When attempting to comprehend Arabic values one needs to take into consideration the influence of Islam on Arabian society. Although there are additional religious groups, the common religion in the area is Islam, and it has a dominant role in influencing culture. The Koran is its principal text, which Muslims who have faith in God discovered the Prophet Mohammed through the Angel Gabriel. It is one of the fundamentals of Islamic law. Islamic law is similarly known as Sharia, and it has converted into part of the structures and secular laws of most countries. In Arabic, Sharia represents the way and it is the base for all Arabic values. Sharia is separated into five key sections including the establishment of justice, educating the individual, upholding public and private morality, preventing hardship on individuals and society, and preventing oppression(Doris,1999). Some Arabic countries read Islamic laws different from other countries. Stoning, hands being cut off, and capital penalty are all laws that are diversely read depending on the country and they make headlines frequently in the West. This law reading sometimes causes the standard to be perceive differently by someone who is looking from outside the culture. An essential part of Arab culture is family. Families uphold tribal and clan influences in many countries and loyalties are solid. People recognize and speak proudly of their genealogy. The extended family celebrates together on feast days, and during Ramadan, they will have breakfast at each other’s houses. In the Arab world, parents have conservative roles in household life. Fathers in most Arab countries take on the patriarchal role.
A man is likely to take care of his family monetarily and feels disgrace if he is unable to provide for his wife and children. Again, this is a value from the Koran which labels men as guardians of women. However, due to fluctuations in society and teaching, wives often help to fund the family. Sometimes this challenge’s the role of the man as the breadwinner. Although the father has an ultimate say, parents debate and plan together before making conclusions. Mothers in Arabic countries continue a traditional character and stay at home. A woman’s duty is to raise the kids, aid in educating them and be able to manage the house. Western society considers them as oppressed and unequal to men. Children duplicate the example assumed by their parents. Boys learn to be men from an early age, to shield the women of the household and take on tasks outside the house. Daughters are trained to run the house. They receive praise for ladylike traits. Children do not leave home until they marry. Often one son will live at home after marriage to take care of his parents’ needs. Education is highly respected. People are very pleased with their qualifications. When you meet parents, likely talk about the schools and colleges their children attend, boasting about their accomplishments with an expectation of you to show you are impressed. Whenever likely the poor send their children to school, struggling to keep them in education but barely able to pay for private tuition. They do this in the hope that they will achieve school certificates or even university degrees.
In Arabic culture privacy is another traditional value that stems back to the Koran. People do not converse their worries outside the family. If a person talks disparagingly about a relative or speaks of secluded affairs to a stranger he is frowned upon. Discretion extends into the way homes are built. There are areas designated to guests and areas where guests are never invited to venture. Often the house’s structure allows female guests to meet wives and daughters in their rooms. Men will entertain friends in their own section of the house. If the home is small timed meetings are scheduled so that guests do not have to see family members with whom they have no business. Everyone has heard of Arabic kindness and hospitality. When traveling anywhere where there is Arabic culture it is a matter of honor that you receive a warm welcome. To keep good relations be aware of the appropriate behavior. Some ways that Arabic cultures show hospitality is by standing when somebody enters the room, respect the different living areas in a Arabic home, when an Arab says my home is your home it is only an expression used to be kind to short-term guest, don’t shake hands with an Arab woman except when she stretches her hand first, don’t speak to Arab women before you are acquainted with the man of the household, don’t ask about an Arab’s families wife or daughters, when leaving the household it is encourages to take any gift that is offered. Whether for professional or pleasure meeting people from the Arab world is an inspiring experience. Knowing more about social values and how to behave in a foreign land is obliging and comforting, not only do you understand the differences amongst their culture and your own, but you also comprehend the resemblances and appreciate how much people of different homelands have in common.
Arabic music is the melody of Arab people, specifically those positioned around the Arabian Peninsula. Social loyalty is of immense importance in Arab culture. The family is one of the most significant characteristics of Arab society. While self-reliance, uniqueness, and accountability are taught by Arabic parents to their children, family loyalty is the utmost lesson taught in Arab families. Unlike the extreme individuality is seen in North America, Arab society highlights the position of the group. Arab culture communicates the needs of the group as they are more important than the needs of one person. In the Bedouin tribes of Saudi Arabia, intense feelings of loyalty and dependence are fostered and well maintained by the family. Margaret Nydell, in her book “Understanding Arabs: A Guide for Modern Times”, writes “family loyalty and obligations take precedence over loyalty to friends or demands of a job. ” She goes on to say that “members of a family are expected to support each other in disputes with outsiders. Regardless of personal antipathy among relatives, they must defend each other’s honor, counter criticism, and display group cohesion (Nydell,1987). As stated before, one of the features of Arabs is generosity and they usually show it by being courteous with each other. Some of the most significant values for Arabs are honor and loyalty. Margaret Nydell, in her book Understanding Arabs: A Guide for Modern Times says that Arabs can be well defined as, caring, loyal and well mannered. Tarek Mahfouz explains in the book “Arab Culture” that it is common for Arabs in dinner conditions to insist on guests to eat the last portion of the meal or to fighting over who will pay the bill at a restaurant for openhandedness.
The world of Arab music has extensively been dominated by Cairo, a cultural focus, though musical origination and regional styles thrive from Tunisia to Saudi Arabia. Beirut has, in current years, also become the main center of Arabic music. Classical Arab music is very popular across the population, especially a small number of celebrities known all over the Arab world. Regional styles of widespread music include Iraqi el Maqaam, Algerian raï, Kuwaiti sawt and Egyptian el gil. The shared style that was established is usually called Islamic or Arab, though in fact it exceeds to religious, ethnic, geographical, and linguistic boundaries and it is proposed that it is called the Near East style. Much Arab music is considered to have an emphasis on melody and rhythm rather than harmony. Much of Arabic music is homophonic and some types of Arab music are polyphonic as the instrument Kanoun is built upon the idea of playing two note chords but quintessentially which makes Arabic music melodic. It would be unfitting though to call it modal, for the Arabic system is more compound than that of the Greek modes. The basis of Arabic music is the maqam which looks like the mode but is not relatively the same. The maqam has a tonal note on which the piece must end. The Arabs diet depends heavily on rice and meats with a slight important when it comes yogurts such as Leben which is yogurt without butterfat. Arabian cuisine now is the result of a blend of richly diverse cuisines, spanning the Arab culture and including Levantine, Egyptian. It has also been influenced by the foods of India, Turkey, Berber. The typical Arab household dinner contains a very healthy portion of rice with an inclusion of lamb and chicken separately. There is also a numerous amount of stewed vegetables that go along with their meals as well as tomato sauce. Tea and coffee is an essential accompanying beverage to Arab meals.
The last culture that will be discussed is the Jamaican culture. Jamaican culture contains the values, lifestyle and religion that express Jamaican people beliefs. The culture is a mixture of cultural and societal influence that stems from original Taino people. The Spaniards initially brought slavery to into Jamaica. Then they were defeated by the English and Jamaica later received emancipation on August 1, 1834 given their independence from the British on August 6, 1962. Whether they are the descendants of the migrants or recent settlers from the Middle East, individuals from all populations live and work collectively in Jamaica. Beliefs have been circulating on Jamaica’s coasts for years. This mixture of pride is also the sources of Jamaican characteristics and to an outsider it is hard to understand, and it may even seem inappropriate. The commonly used dialect of Jamaican people is English which is derived from Patois the frequently used languages of Jamaican people. This speech is a mixture of dialect used by inhabitants in history. It was first used by slaves who struggles to connect with one another since they were from different countries and for Africans. Christianity is the primary belief in Jamaican culture.
Many older churches still utilize religion. The Rastafari culture is derived from ancient Christian culture, but its heritages are influenced are taking from African culture with mindfulness of political awareness for political views. There is still a small quantity of Jewish synagogues in Jamaica. Fundamentals of ancient African religions remain, especially in remote parts throughout the island. Some of these practices are defined as Obeah, Kumin or Pocomania. The audiences are small but there are many Christian and non-Christian people looking for healing that they cannot receive from conventional medicines. The Baha’i movement in Jamaica started over 50 years in 1942 when Dr. Malcolm King brought education from the United States of America. Jamaica is a member of the British Commonwealth. In the executive branch consisting of the British monarch, the prime minister and deputy prime minister, and the governor general, and the cabinet. The legislative branch contains the Senate and the House of Representatives. The judicial branch contains the supreme court and numerous layers of lower courts. There are two distinct types of marriages that Jamaican culture consists of. The marriage which is recognized and socially preferred is Western style monogamous union and the other is a consensual union. The assortment of a spouse is made by individual choice, but in more traditional groups, the consent of parents and close relatives is required. In African Jamaican culture marriage is connected to a socioeconomic status where the consensual union is usually practiced by rural and urban poor individuals and legal unions are associated with stable to upper-class individuals.
As a psychology professional it is important to understand the dynamics of all cultures. The differences that were discussed helped me to better understand why people may act the way they act. It goes back generations, and the experiences that have been passed down to these individuals affect their behavior. It has shown me to be understanding and more cautious of what others are feeling and experiences. A lot of the culture that was discussed have heavy influences from their families even when it comes to who they marry, so if I encounter someone who may have relationship problems I will now take into consideration that these individuals may be going through situations in their relationship and also in their family unit. I feel that if I am more aware and focused on the real problems that people face from a cultural standpoint, I am able to get to the root of the problem. It has improved the way that I view situations, because even though there may be problems that are apparent, there could also be cultural influences that affect a way a person feels about themselves, their situation, and the people they care about. Learning to be more diverse in the way that I approach problems that I face could give me a greater outlook on how to handle people of diverse cultures or provide information to someone else regarding how to approach a situation. Working with people is a very complex profession because of rapport is going to determine your success and anything that could offend a client in any way may cause the relationship to have a block. Everything I have learned while researching different aspects of cultures will help me in the future to not allow my personal bias or my cultural beliefs to come against someone I am working with.
There are many similarities in all these cultures. Most of us are all the same in the aspect that we value family and friends, we all value unity and adopt ways to educate our families. This is a similarity that I constantly saw, and it gave me a great deal of enjoyment to know that though culture all have different religious beliefs we are all seeking knowledge that is bigger than us and we all understand that we are here to help one another. There were also many differences in the way that these cultures saw life, but in all of the cultures there were values and morals that are passed down to assist younger generations in understanding their history. Culture ultimately shapes how we view the world around us. This means that it has the capability to bring change our current social issues and create peace. Right now that goal is still very far from where is should be. There are many crisis that we face as a society, but our cultures and the love and understanding of different cultures could resolve these problems. It is up to every one of us to uphold these standards and build one another for our difference and actively attempt to bring all cultures together in an effort to change the world and the many problems we face because of hatred, beliefs, and our behaviors as a society. As a professional working in the field of psychology it is intreging to learn about different cultures, and moreover with this knowledge I plan to bring people together in hopes that we can all come closer to loving one another despite the cultural belief that we value.
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