A Literature Review of the Malay Legend using Technology Platforms for Information

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This chapter discusses on the traditional Malay literary with the use of technology platforms for information. This literature study also provides an overview of the approaches to problem solving, system constraints and technology to be used in problem solving. The way or steps in applying location-based services into an application will be discussed in this chapter.The information gathering process is one of the critical aspects in ensuring the development of the system is good and smooth. Related past studies will be compared and will be taken as references and guides in implementing the proposed application.

Introduction To Malay Legend

According to the Chamber Dictionary (2005), legend is originally derived from the Latin word; carries a meaning of a story to be narrated. The legend is a story that cannot be ascertained by the truth but it is believed to be true by the narrators and instructors concerned with history and places. There are times when they are similar to fairy tales or fiction that tell stories about a person or event. But it is not considered as a fairy tale because a fairy tale is just a fictional story that has no evidence, narrated for human guidelines. Legend enriched with the stories of natural events such as islands, lakes, hills, rivers and mountains linked to local places as evidence. Many well known places which are Puteri Gunung Ledang in Johor, Lake Chini Naga in Pahang, and lakes on Pulau Dayang Bunting in Langkawi, Kedah. All these stories are very interesting and the places associated with the story still exist and can be visited. Visitors can feel and experience the beauty and precise oddities by their own (Hassan & Isa, 2014). There are various Malay legends that contain good cultural values ​​and good values ​​to be learned by today’s younger generation. For example, the story of the greatness of the Malays as sailors, marine warriors and water merchants who are skilled in sailing and making sailing in the past. These stories are usually targeted at children, where the story contents are imbued with strong moral values ​​based on social, cultural or spiritual elements (Mat Piah, 2006: 104). Malay folk literature represents oral traditions usually told to children who are about to go to bed (Osman, 1976: 8). Therefore, folk literature is suitable for use as reading materials for children considering that such stories contain noble values, guidance for living and valuable lessons (Osman, 1976: 8).

Location-based Service

Location-based service is widely used in mobile applications that have tracking and navigation functions. With the increasing popularity of Social-based locations such as Foursquare and Yelp, location-based services are gaining momentum. There are a number of widely used approaches in mobile applications to determine location. Among the approaches that can be used are global positioning systems (GPS), Wi-Fi positioning systems and cellular networks (Bereth & Kupper, 2011). IP, RFID, Bluetooth and QR-Code addresses may also be used but not widely used such as GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular methods (Lehmann, 2003).Location-based services have become innovative information technology to identify the user’s geographic location or position. Some location-based systems have been introduced such as GPS, geographic information system (GIS), network of carriers to identify internal and external locations (Azhar, 2015)Location-based service can be categorized as push services and pull services. In the push service, the location of the user’s mobile device is identified and the information is pushed to the user without being asked. For example, an advertisement message can be sent to a user when they entering a particular area in a shopping store and a warning message may be sent to a user who is in an area where the weather will change.In the pull service, the user decides when the application is allowed to identify the location of their mobile device and use it in the service. The pull service can involve personal location for instance locating the current location of the user and locating the nearest restaurant or bank location. The navigation system and direction are examples of pull location-based service (Kushwaha & Kushwaha, 2011).Since GPS was declared fully operational by the US Department of Defense in 1995, it is seen widely used. This is the first system that allows anyone with devices with nearby GPS facilities to instantly determine their location is covered by special knowledge. In the most basic sense, GPS answers the question “Where am I?” using absolute coordinates of latitude, longitude and usually altitude (Walde, 2014).

Components Of Location-based Services

To develop location-based service, several required infrastructure elements include mobile devices, applications, communication networks, component positions and service servers. Mobile devices are tools used by users to access location-based service to send requests and make decisions. These devices can be mobile navigation tools (PNDs), personal data assistants (PDAs), laptop computers, mobile phones and so on. Applications are the user interface for accessing location-based service. It is usually software developed by the app provider, downloaded and installed on the user’s mobile device. A specialized application is usually developed for certain location-based service. Positioning components are usually required in a location-based service app to determine the location of the user’s mobile device. Most current PBL services do not require users to manually input location, such as postal code or street name. On the other hand, the user’s location can be obtained by using some of the technologies such as satellite positioning, cellular network satellite, WLAN station or radio signals.The diagram shows the interactions between the components and the first location-based service process, the user sent a service request using an application running on a mobile device (Step 1). Service request, with current user location information derived from the positioning component (in this example, GPS data) is sent to the service server via the mobile communication network (step 2). The service server requests a database of geographical and other related databases to obtain the required information (step 3.4). Finally, the requested information will be sent back to the user’s mobile via the mobile communications network (step 5, step 6).

Location-based service contains several components including maps and geographical information systems (GIS), location quote services and major components of location-based service specific applications. The location-based service architecture can be described as shown in the diagram below (Kushwaha & Kushwaha, 2011).

Google Map API

Google map is a web-based mapping service provided by Google and has a highly responsive visual interface built using AJAX technology. This service has detailed road and air imagery data and open APIs allowing the adjustment of map results including the ability to carry out application-specific data on maps as well as integration into applications and websites (Tech, 2009).API is a computer programming system termed as programming interface (API). It is used for computer operation, input output and as a software component. The API is used to view specific locations, search for addresses, get driving directions and do many other things. The Google API is one of the most popular APIs on the internet.There is dynamic nature on Google Maps, HTML, CSS and JavaScript that works together. The API basically consists of JavaScript files that contain classes with several methods and features that can be used to tell the map how to behave and how to use it.Google API is one of the best programs in the world. It is a set of APIs developed by Google that allow communication with Google services and their integration into other services. It is also used in the form of search, Gmail, translation or Google Maps. The API provides a variety of functions such as analytics, learning machine as a service. It is also used to access user data. Another important example is the Google Map built on the website, which can be accessed using the static map (Pradip Saymote, 2016). The Google Maps API is a technology that can be used to display maps on developed applications. This technology allows maps to zoom, dizziness and scroll. Additionally, the API also offers many other services to use. The function of markers and window information that Google Maps API provides can be seen in the diagram below

Information Technology In Children Education

Students today are growing up with laptops, tablets, cell phones, and they expect to use this technology in their daily interactions (NCREL & Metiri, 2003). Information technology products involve text, image, animation, video, and sound in teaching material to their full potential for learning (Large & Beheshti, 1995). Children are very sensitive to what is going on around them and they quickly learn what they see and hear. Learning using IT has exploited them to express their existence and feelings as long it is embedding colourful materials and images (Muhammad Adnan, 2011). Children are attracted to the fun things and environment. Therefore, the use of attractive and cheerful graphics in learning is essential to stimulating emotions and attracting them. The use of interactivity promotes creative children. This is because it allows children to use their creativity to analyze the messages they want to deliver by the application software. Text use is also important in student learning materials, but the text element used should be less than the graphic element (Muhammad Adnan, 2011). According to Mayer (2009), powerful and vibrant music will eliminate boredom throughout the learning. The combination of visual and audiovisual presentation conveys the information in a more understandable format (Wright, 1993). The level of learning and human understanding can be enhanced by promoting interactive learning environments (Oouz, 1998).Mayer Interactive Learning Model (1999) emphasizes three important elements that must be embedded in application that are cognition, self-esteem, and effective aspects. Cognition is the process of acquiring knowledge and mental action through thought, experience and sense. Cognition gives an impact on how they will act. It is an act or process to know something.Self-pace emphasizes on the ability of students to learn by themselves until they achieve optimum performance. Self-learning means students have their own ability and autonomy in learning. Affective refers to the internal aspects of the student’s self and relates to self-esteem, feelings, and values. The element is to create fertilization in terms of feeling to learn in the learning process (Goleman, 1995).

Gaming In Education

Custom made video games have been used in K-12 classrooms across the world to enhance student’s learning experience (Wastiau, Kearney & Van den Berghe, 2009). The 2011 Horizon report suggests that game-based learning will gain widespread use in two to three years (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine, & Haywood, 2011). With 97% of US teens playing some type of digital game on a regular basis (Lenhart, Kahne, Middaugh, Macgill, Evans, & Vitak, 2008), it is not surprising that there is a large and growing interest in the applicability of games in education. Gaming is a concept that implements game mechanics and game design techniques that engage players and motivates players to achieve their goals. The gaming technique strives to harness the players’ desire to learn, socialize, compete and achieve goals. Steinkuehler & Chmiel (2006) suggest that games will not replace teachers and classrooms, but they might replace some textbooks. Games can also be adapted based on students’ needs. Among the advantages of the game is that it does not force children to learn but provide learning opportunities at all times and increase child motivation (Tam & Hui, 2011).

Theory Of Children Game

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Game theory has been of importance on many fields of the social sciences since its rise to prominence more than fifty years ago (Lim, 1999). A player is defined by Osborne (2002) as an individual or group of individuals making a decision. Children learn through imaginative play (Bodrova & Leong, 2003; Hirsh-Pasek, Golinkoff, & Eyer, 2003; Zigler, Singer, & Bishop-Josef, 2004). Appropriate scaffolding can be provided in games through the use of levels. Supports are embedded into games such that easier levels are typically played first, advancing on to more complex levels as the player achieves mastery. Researchers de Jong and van Joolingen (1998) concluded that adding appropriate instructional supports and scaffolding to games may help them in discovery learning. Games should allow players to form knowledge that will be useful later (Gee, 2003). Effective game provides clear feedback and immediately responds to the player’s actions” (Rigby & Ryan, 2007, p. 8). Learning does not just end with the game. Post-game discussions and results are crucial to be displayed. Children prefer rich graphics (Prensky, 2001). They desire tasks that are active with information supplied in parallel (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2004, p. 3). Students are also more engaged when a narrative story is present within the games (Barab, Arici, & Jackson, 2005). Games may contain the pieces of information necessary to engage players and help them enter a state of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).Although motivation clearly seems to be important, there is not clear agreement on what makes a game or learning task motivating. Dickey (2005) argued that the three main elements of engaged learning are clear goals and tasks, reinforcing feedback, and increasing challenge. Fladen and Blashki (2005) also listed the three key features of motivating games are interactivity, agency, and engagement. Rigby and Ryan (2007) then created a different set of needs that are satisfied by engaging games through their Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) model: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Each of these models could be used to evaluate games, player’s motivation, and the impacts on subsequent learning and achievement. They test not only current knowledge and skills, but also preparation for future learning. Games should provide them with appropriate diagnostic feedback that is seamlessly integrated into the learning experience (Rupp, 2010, p. 4). This is what well-designed games do. But games for children must interact as compulsory and have its flow because we focus on helping them to develop skills in decision-making and understanding (Johnson et al., 2011). The main factor for success is to achieve a balance between fun and learning in the model of game design (M. Prensky, 2001). Unfortunately, this is not an easy task. Games or simulations that have a very detailed and realistic visualization and audio effects can lead to memory overload of players. Also, games with multitasking activities, can lead to significant activities of players, but with very little learning. The solution lies in the careful selection of motivational elements in the game in the way that the developer supports (M. Prensky, 2001). According to Dickey (2005) the initial strategy of gaming is to use rewards as a medium to players performing the desired tasks to earn rewards. The types of rewards used are like score, achievement badges, or progress bar filling levels. The technique of providing this reward can encourage players to compete.

Review Of Similar Applications

Before the application development process, several studies were made on similar applications. This study is aimed to compare the features and functions offered in the applications. This subtopic also discusses existing systems that use location-based service concepts for learning purposes. There are 3 identified applications namely World History Quick e-Book, Geography Challenge and Field Trip. All advantages and disadvantages of the applications are recorded and compared to guide the development of the proposed application.

World History Quick e-Book

This app was developed in 2016 and the latest version is 1.40. This app gives users a helpful interface to explore all study materials related to History subjects in an easy way. This educational app uses a new design concept that helps students in preparing for the exam as well as refreshing their knowledge faster than other ebook formats. Users can scroll the seek bar and instantly read / go-through the materials, carefully compiling Historical world events that occurred since the Big-bang theory to the 21st century. Users can search using the scroll bar and instantly read / go to the materials. The developer of this app has carefully compiled every world history event that has taken place since the enormous blast theory of the 21st century (“World History Quick eBook – Android Apps on Google Play” n.d.).

Geography Challenge

This app was developed in 2014 and the latest version is Geography Challenge is a fun, interactive world geography game. It is about how well do users know the world. The user should click on the map and place the marker as close as possible to the requested location. There are 12 challenging levels that contain different categories of locations. The following categories are the world’s cities, famous places/ sightseeing spots, and capital of the world. The entire app contains about 500 different locations around the world. Additionally, this app contains fun facts about each location. The app also has the functionality to test user knowledge of the world’s tourist attractions with photo-based quizzes. Based on a photo of a famous sightseeing spot, users need to find the place on the map. Moreover, the application contains fun facts about each location. (“Geography Challenge – Android Apps on Google Play” n.d.).

Field Trip

This application was developed in 2015 and the latest version is 2.0.9. Field Trip can help users learn about all the latest local history. The main function of this app is for users to find thousands of interesting places and get information about each area under the following categories: architecture, events, historic places, lifestyle, food and drink for fun, movie location and outdoor art (“Field Trip – Android Apps on Google Play” nd).Field Trip is your guide to the cool, hidden, and unique things in the world around you. Field Trip runs in the background on your phone. When you get close to something interesting, it pops up a card with details about the location. No click is required. If you have a headset or bluetooth connected, it can even read the info to you.Field Trip can help you learn about everything from local history to the latest and best places to shop, eat, and have fun. You select the local feeds you like and the information pops up on your phone automatically, as you walk next to those places.The hyperlocal history experts of Arcadia and Historvius will unveil local lore in places you never expected. Trend-setting publications like TimeOut, Thrillist, Spotted by Locals, Zagat, and Eater will point out the best places to eat and drink. Experts at Sunset, Cool Hunting, WeHeart, Inhabitat, and Remodelista will guide you to the latest unique stores and products. Atlas Obscura, Dezeen and Spotted by Locals help you uncover hidden gems no matter where you are. Songkick and Flavorpill guide you to local music.

Comparison Of Similar Applications

Characteristic, Application, World History, Quick e-Book, Geography Challenge, Field Trip, Platform, Android, Android, Android Language, English, English, English, Security, No login required, No login required, No login required, Communication, One-way, Two-way, One-way, Interface, Static, Simple, Static, History information, Video, Sound, Games (Quiz)

Proposed Solution

The proposed app is a location-based application for cultural learning through Malay legend stories. The objective of this application development is to create an interactive application between the user and the system, thus involving two-way communication. This application is developed with a simple interface compared to existing applications so users are quicker and easier to understand the concept of this app and do not need to take time to learn how this application operates.Have a variety of interesting elements, pure values ​​and cultural learning applied to the proposed app. Additionally, various media and services such as video, audio, graphics and Google maps will be included in this application. Learning about Malay culture and pure values ​​will also be incorporated into the legendary storytelling. Next, interactive elements will be applied to quiz-shaped games about the cultural elements and pure values ​​learned. Finally the target user of this app is children 7 to 12 years old.


This chapter covers all studies on similar applications and the application to be developed. Examining the existing system is important to examine the application limits by taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of the system. It’s a bit of a bit about the background to make it easy to identify the system requirements to apply. The advantages of the existing system are selected and the use and addition of new functions are also made in the development of this application. In addition, this literary study also helps identify problems and comparisons and solutions for achieving project objectives. In this chapter there is also a description of the user’s functional requirements specification for this application. All user requirements are specified for member guidance during application development so that development objectives can be met and the development process runs smoothly.

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