Zika is compacted as ZIKV is an arthropod virus that includes flaviviridae. It was initially selected from non-human living body. ZIKV got spread by stinging of mosquitoe. Since half a century ZIKV remain occasional later on it got fame in America. ZIKV clinical researches aren’t very specific they are general in nature so they are always linked it with dengue virus and infected disease like chikungunya. Microcephaly was observed this disease always have some mild illness symptoms. In clinics ZIKV diagnosis almost comprises of isolation of detection ZIKV-RNA. We cannot underrate effect of ZIKV. ZIKV is mostly found in urban areas and have more chance of occurrence and emergence in those areas that has active sites of them.
Zika viruses spread due to bites of mosquito. Zika virus has connection with genus flaviviridae.. It is no segmented single stranded RNA genome.These viruses breed in water holding materials. These viruses are daytime feeders they actually bite their hosts in the daytime and they feed both indoors and outdoors houses, flats and many other places of residence. All mammals and non-mammal all placental mammals of other primates typically having flexible hands and feets are including apes, man and monkeys are main reservoirs pf zika viruses.Transmission of zika virus has been conformed in 67 countries till yet. When pregnant women get zika virus it immediately initiates fatal birth defect called as microcephaly. Modern studies also showed the fact zika virus can also be transmitted by sexual interactions between two partners. Zika virus was first of all isolated from monkey in 1947. In 1954 it gains importance in Nigeria.
As you all know that arbovirus is arthropod borne virus that is used to describe those viruses in our ecosystems that always transmit between a mosquito and living host. Early days divide and classified arboviruses on serological basis. But now modern division rule is used that classified it into a different genus of flaviridae. This genus is classified into 3 main classes. But researches are trying to place 4th group in it that will be totally related to insects.
They mostly depend on non-human preys. Many animals from different species are actually their hosts on which they prey. They actually choses those hosts that are directly dependent on arboviruses to survive in nature. But some viruses are completely adapted to humans that include DENV and thus they found urban environment more suitable for them to survive and grow and multiply. And they adopts the cycle that is totally human reservoir. Strains of DENV can affect humans. And from their sylvatic cycles they can reemergence. Vector of this virus got its definition in a way that an arthropod that can be moved or translocate from one vertebrate to another by stinging or biting.it can be transmitted horizontally or it can be transmitted by saliva or during sexual intercourse between two infected partners.
Four reports supported the fact that it can be transmitted by sexual contact. In 2007 United States of America an American scientist worked on the victims. Husband went to travel those areas that were having active sites of ZIKV. Her wife who didn’t went out to those areas when she got her sexual intercourse with her husband she frequently developed zika virus illness that suggests that disease has been transmitted due to sexual intercourse. Both patients showed positive results when they undergo serological testing. Also on December 2013 a 44 years old man got medical care for hematospermia. But the patient didn’t showed any symptoms.
Also ZIKV was recently isolated form patient urine sample and his results were also negative. From those results again is was reported that ZIKV transmits due to sexual intercourse. And the studies revealed that it got spread due to mosquito bites. All men who travelled on a place with an active are of zika virus transmission after doing sexual intercourse developed the symptoms pf zika viruses.
Their female sexual partners become infected within 2 weeks. And one the major role that lead to transmission of this disease during sexual intercourse was their lackness and condemless contact of vagina and penis. Zika virus can be transmitted through blood fusions. By sexual contact with a man who has once diagnosed with zika virus infection or have travelled to those areas where its presence was indicated the transfusion needs only blood and blood components.
In last 40 years there is reappearance of arboviruses. And their capacity and their immunity new systems is quite challenging. And it can affect our geographical expansions. Discovery of ZIKV and arboviruses all were because of the studies that was actually done for biochemical basis of yellow fever and dengue. In Uganda life cycle of sylvan was studied because of which we discovered ZIKV. In yellow fever research institute different viruses responsible for yellow fever were discovered and those all viruses were named according to the places names so the people can easily distinguish between them on the basis of country or region. Viruses discovered in Uganda not only reflect the regions where viruses got their origin but it represents the areas where yellow fever was studied.
Details for focalization of zikv are insufficient. Human parts that were liberal and indulgent to zikv infection includes fibroblasts and dendritic cells. Viral duplication results in making of spherical structured cells with double membranes. And they left a sign of antiviral antigen that were able to detect.
There is no proper treatment or not any proper medicine is available to treat disease of zika virus however some steps and measures can be taken to improve your health. There is currently no medication no vaccine is available of zika. But clinical experts are working on it. Currently we are treating zika virus affected patients using vaccines of dengue. There are no proper treatments available only prevention is to protect yourself from mosquitoes. Although we need vector controlling strategies. However sexual contact prevention and blood transfusion and saliva contacts are healthier source to prevent it.
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