Water covered two thirds surface of theearths, water is one ofthe most important elements responsible for life on earth. It is not only vital for nourishment of life, but equally necessary for socio-economic development. Water is the basic requirement of life. And water is the unique gift of God. Due to the high indulgence and misuseof human being with nature, the global environmentis changing every day. As a result the water resources are reducingprogressively.
The global fresh water shortage and food security problems related to theteeming billionsof populationrequired the shifting of fresh water from agricultureto other more pressing uses. The country is facing the worst ever crises of water shortage for last many years, as water available for any given use has become graduallyrare. The quicklyrising population, increasing of irrigation areas, and rising urban & Industrialization areputting morestresses on water resources. The problemof waterdeficiency particular in Sindh is crucial as being the end userand lower riparian on theIndus basin irrigation system.
While large scale water resources development has been taking place in the world, but until huge majority of people will do not have sufficientclean water for drinking and canal water for irrigation. The distribution of water supply for drinking purpose is quite appalling in modern times, Mean time the downstream people are not appropriately protected against flood or disaster hits due to the inappropriate management. The main stay of Pakistan’s economy isirrigation;about 90% of total agriculture output of the country is totally dependent on irrigation. Water resources have played very essential role in the development of land and water storage system. More than half of world’s population survives in developing countries and the poorest of these communities depend heavily on misuse of local water resources for their livelihood.
A correct estimate of available water for irrigation is a pre-condition of success. In addition quality and quantity of water has to be assessed before its utility. The water supply available for agriculture is derived from freeze ice, surface storages andground entrapment. But theactual and only recharging source isthe rainfall. Rainfall is normally inadequate to sustain more than a very low level of agricultural production, particularly in semi-arid regions. This requires the effective watershed management for harvesting the surface and sub-surface runoff and preparation of water budget from all sources.
Very less downpour, The Hydrological cycle determines the set of processes that maintains the flow of water through the system. The hydrological cycle depend upon evaporation, due to high contamination of wet lands, oceans, rivers the process is affected badly. Cutting of large areas of jungle according to UN report in Pakistan from 7000 to 9000 hectares jungle is removed yearly and now it is only 5% instead of 25 % of Total land. The irrigation water is becoming a diminishing source in Pakistan and the whole world. It is clear from the global facts that for sustainable and further development of the agriculture sector, storages are must at proper places with proper planning and management.
Shortage in cropped lands (Out of 80 Mha, 29 Mha land is cultivable but only 17 Mha is hardly canal irrigated yet), therefore import of food grains put additional stress on economy. Hydro Power. Pakistan has an estimated potential of 40,000 MW of hydropower in the upper Indus region; we have tapped only 13%. At present Pakistan has a power generation capacity of 19246 MW, out of which only 30% is from hide and nuclear where as 70% is from thermal. WAPDA has projected a power requirement of 75149 MW by year 2025, which can only be achieved by constructing additional storage dams.
Above 70% of the population survivesin rural areas and the humblest of these communities depend heavily on misuse of local natural resources for their livelihoods. Management becomes important when the productive resource is water and reducing day by day. Awareness through all possible means about the environment calls for reduced abstraction and higher quality return flows. A national policy is necessary to achieve sustainable agriculture growth. The problem of water shortage is investigated up to its grassroots, and then on the basis of that an effective solution is produced and implemented. Increasing urban concentration and industrialization along the rivers on one side led to the majorconcept of fresh water and on other side put negative influences on water quality. Therefore water balance, water quality and water accounting is must for sustainable water supply for all possible uses.
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