The Greek Refugee Crisis: A Humanitarian Catastrophe in the European Union

July 18, 2023
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Every year, a staggering number of over 1,200,000 refugees brave the treacherous Aegean Sea in search of a better life, escaping the dangers that have engulfed their homelands. Europe beckons as a beacon of hope and safety for these desperate souls, but for too many, their dreams are shattered along the way. The arduous journeys result in countless lives lost and families torn apart. For the past four years, Greece has borne the brunt of the refugee crisis, emerging as a gateway to Europe for those fleeing violence in the Middle East and Central Asia. Presently, Greece stands as a makeshift sanctuary, accommodating over 500,000 refugees on its islands, trapped and unable to move further into Europe legally (Asylum Information Database). This humanitarian catastrophe has also taken on a political dimension, challenging the founding principles of the European Union ("EU"), which have long been rooted in international law and the protection of human rights for the past six decades.

Greek Refugee Crisis and the EU's Response

Regrettably, the EU's response to the crisis has been the adoption of stringent border restrictions, leaving vulnerable populations at even greater risk. This approach places a disproportionate burden on Greece and Italy, compelling them to shoulder the responsibility of caring for those who reach Europe seeking asylum. For instance, since the implementation of border restrictions in March 2016, around 160,000 refugees, predominantly from Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan, find themselves stranded on the Greek islands of Lesbos, Chios, Kos, Samos, and Leros (Current State of Greek Crisis - The Guardian). This challenge cannot be solely addressed at a regional level; a long-term solution is imperative. The refugee crisis is claiming thousands of lives every year, stripping countless individuals of their basic human rights. Europe must rise to this occasion, transcending geographical constraints to find a unified response.

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Historically, Europe's refugee crisis is unparalleled since the aftermath of World War II, which saw over 40 million refugees in the region and the establishment of international laws and organizations to tackle such crises. Fast forward to 2014, where 219,000 refugees crossed the Mediterranean into Europe, and the number has surged with over 300,000 people making the perilous journey this year alone (PRI's The World). The financial impact has been immense, with more than 2 million refugees and migrants entering Greece since 2014, leading to approximately $254 million in refugee-related funding from the European Commission. Unfortunately, this amount falls far short of what is required. If divided evenly among all refugees, each individual would receive a mere $18 annually, which is insufficient to meet even their basic needs.

Behind these statistics lies the heartbreaking human toll, like the shocking incident of a 10-year-old child attempting suicide in a Greek refugee camp — a tragic occurrence that is not isolated. Moria, the largest camp on Lesbos housing about 8,000 people, has become a symbol of appalling conditions and neglect (Democracy Chronicles). To address this crisis effectively, Europe must step up its assistance, moving beyond short-term fixes and focusing on more comprehensive, long-term plans that can support the constantly growing number of refugees.

Greece's historical ties with Syria initially led to a willingness to help entering Syrians, mirroring the assistance they received from Syria after the Asia Minor catastrophe in the 1920s (Greek newspaper Kathimerini). However, the current influx has stretched resources thin, and Europe's assistance has been insufficient, leaving Greece with limited support from various organizations working on the islands (Parallels, Many Stories, One World - NPR). The burden on Greece has intensified, given its economic challenges since 2010, making it an unsuitable final destination for many refugees. To alleviate this strain, the EU implemented the Emergency Relocation Mechanism, aiming to relocate nearly 100,000 asylum seekers to different EU member states. However, this policy has raised human rights and legal concerns, particularly regarding family reunification efforts.

The Need to Act

Urgent actions are required to decongest the Greek islands, where over 12,000 people endure overcrowded and poorly equipped hotspots (International Rescue Committee). Asylum processing must also receive adequate resources to expedite decisions, allowing those with a legitimate right to asylum to stay, while others are returned. The responsibility for this crisis cannot rest solely on Greece and Italy. European unity is crucial in confronting this challenge and preventing the rise of nationalist sentiments that threaten global stability. The EU's delayed response to this humanitarian emergency is inexcusable, endangering thousands of lives seeking refuge in Europe.

In the face of hate and growing nationalist movements, Europe must unite to address this crisis promptly. The forthcoming European elections offer an opportunity for serious and effective action to combat this catastrophe. The world must raise awareness and pressure politicians to effect real change. The destiny of countless refugees fleeing death in their homelands lies in the hands of humanity, and a united Europe must take the lead in bringing an end to this refugee crisis. The time for meaningful action is now; we cannot afford to ignore the plight of those in dire need.


  1. Asylum Information Database (2023). Greece Country Report. Retrieved from
  2. Current State of Greek Crisis (2023). The Guardian. Retrieved from
  3. Democracy Chronicles (2023). Greek Refugee Camps and the EU: An Unsolvable Crisis? Retrieved from
  4. NPR (2023). Parallels, Many Stories, One World: The Refugees and Migrants of Lesbos. Retrieved from
  5. International Rescue Committee (2023). Greece: Responding to the Refugee Crisis. Retrieved from
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