The Experience of Victimization at the Workplace
This research has the subject of workplace victimization and specifically the impact of these acts on turnover incentives and deviant behavior in Pakistan. We define workplace victimization as acts of violence committed by one or more members of an organization that cause psychological, emotional, or physical harm to their intended victim (Karl Aquino, Stefan Thau, 2009). There is an impact of the situational factors in the motivation of such kind of behavior and the intensity and frequency of the crime varies between genders.
Role of environment and behavior prevailing at the workplace, job satisfaction, organization commitment and arousal of turnover intentions appear to share a direct relationship according to this study. This paper illustrates the variety of themes about bullying based on ethical underpinnings, and the need to suppress this workplace victimization through rights and legislation instead of relying completely on individual and on collective morality. In fact the organization should care for the security and satisfaction of employee. However, the moral attitude of central witnesses, stake holder and policy makers remains insensitive and silent due to their own interests. Some assumptions should be considered along with this demanded legal protection of rights against victimization or bullying.
First of all, benevolence that the bully should be sanctioned by witnesses. Secondly, fairness should be sought in this impaired social justice. Thirdly, victims own role in his/her perceived victimization (direct or indirect) should also be considered in certain situations (Karl Aquino, Murray Bradfield, 2000). According to this study, employees with a relatively aggressive temperament complain more about victimization than the employees with a calmer and lower aggression temperament. Fourthly a religious framework is needed for social morality. As in contemporary theses ideal rights of protection from bullying will not be a priority until the individual’s own moral principles are seriously offended or awakened (Victor, Cullen, 1988). The two interlined principles underpin and elaborate on the moral and action of indiviuals. It is clearly the basis of behavior feeding the priority of self-interest rather than aiding others. Interconnectedness and sharing of information goes to the back plan.
A study on relationship between turnover intentions, job satisfaction and organization commitment supports this idea. It revealed that disloyalty occurred more when the employees were dissatisfied and their personal interests were not protected at work and by their co-workers (Frederick, et all. 1995). The intensity of commitment differs with men and women, with women it is weaker than with men. If social relationships hold more significance for women than there is certainly a need to improve social ties to discourage turnover intentions amongst female employees (Fredrick, et all, 1995).
For this emancipation and empowerment, “knowledge economy” should also be considered along with legality of rights. Both bullying and establishment of associated rights and obligations are complex issues and in this case it can be taken as a well intended byproduct of decentralization or result of moral expediency at workplace. The ethical climate prevailing in an organization can prognosticate in a great extent the deviant workplace behaviour. The climate dimensions (see further for the types) of an organization that predicts the deviant behavior needs to be looked into to get accurate results. The results of research by Robinson and Bennet (1995) about deviant behavior and organizational ethical climate, encourage the notion that factors contributing to deviant workplace behavior depend on the classification of behaviour.
Hereby the types that were defined. Political Deviance is related to the Employee Focus dimension. Rule and Law dimension determines the Deviant property behavior. The relationship seems to be direct linear but strong emphasis on obeying rules cannot be the guarantee of non-deviant property behavior. According to the study of Dane k. Peterson self-interest, personal ethics, and employee focus dimensions can be the predictors of Production Deviance, with self interest having a direct and positive relationship with deviant behavior. All the ethical climate dimensions do not project uniformity and are not the substantial predictors of Deviant behavior. The self interest factor is the only dimension having the direct and positive relationship with deviant production behavior. Organizations may be less prone to deviant production behavior if Emphasis on Personal Ethics and Employee Focus is assured.
Moreover, it is a dire need to protect victims of bullying at workplace, but legislation needs to be preceded by the catalyst of moral will. Thus moral and ethical ideas should be concerned as well. The significance of the study will be to improve the public understanding, providing an insight to the prevailing perception of masses regarding victimization behavior at work place, its impact on turnover intentions and deviant behavior and its mere existence in Pakistan.
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