Technical Innovations Of Precision Medicine And How They Can Benefit Healthcare

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Precision medicine, based on a global perception survey has been ranked as one of the most emerging technologies with great potential benefits [1], an emerging approach in terms of disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment and lifestyle of each person[2]. The technology itself creates therapy more efficient, inculcating the humanization of medicine, due to which various technological challenges are towards safety, privacy, knowledge integration and data storage including ethical and social implications. In the past, the traditional form of treatment were more towards evidence based medicine which works on the law of averages based on the empirical data procured, guidelines and medication were based on what worked for an average person keeping individuality out of the way decreasing the understanding of disease biology.

The various methods have been devised for mapping ones gene code to optimize and gather information which includes DNA sequencing, molecular profiling of microbes, Pharmacogenomic screenings which are confined to more wide spread diseases with limited data obtainment(https://geneticliteracyproject. org/2015/10/14/precision-medicines-cost-challenges-are-there-lower-tech-alternatives/). Considering the short term goal of personalized medicine of specialized treatment, methods used in cancer treatment namely chemotherapy and radiation therapy are drenched in its own limitations causing undesirable side effects based on the mechanism of killing cells that divide including harming healthy living cells[4].

Universities, researchers and insurance industry representatives are taking the first steps to map plans to develop next generation healthcare by evolving precision medicine in United States to boost the slow growing economy in states such as Connecticut. In areas where health care has been an underdeveloped industry, various means are implemented to improve and develop the medical manufacturing industry[5]. Initiatives like, National Institute of Health’s (NIH’s) All of Us Research program in precision medicine allows participants across the country to contribute their data to a research resource that will accelerate innovation in medicine[6].

University of Utah has led a study looking at the value of precision medicine test designed to evaluate the aggressiveness of lung cancer[7], Many independent researchers and cancer centers are already embracing this personalized approach to cancer care, though in its initial stages, there has been a jump in development since the investment of $215 to launch the precision medicine initiative by the US government during the Presidency of Barack Obama[8]. Non-Profit organisations such as PM Connective has brought together upto 160 key representatives from various health care silos to establish the hurdles that encumber each stakeholder in implementing precision medicine[9], showcases the various actors and stakeholders involved in the area of healthcare and their drive in improving the technology towards the betterment of the society.

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The progress of development could be hampered by various reverese salient features which includes the reliance of various environmental factors unlike gene coding, thereby shaping the lives of individuals by their own personal habits, mechanisms that are often tweakable and potentially subject to human control[10]. The nascent stages of research has found it unlikely to make most individuals healthier with limitations in genetic screening[11] thereby limiting the care offered by personalized medicine. It will also be critical to find ways to understand the risks and benefits of the individuals participating in the research, thereby raising the question if there is adequate informed consent set in place to progress the research[12]. Ethical, social and legal issues are also still to be constructed to form a strong foothold for further progression and how to quantify the precision medicine interventions will benefit each stakeholder[13].

Over the past decade, advances in medicine have increased the life expectancy in most markets, yet patients don’t receive care until they fall ill. The usage of analytics to identify patient risks before they manifest themselves can result in better outcomes, potentially lowering the cost of healthcare mainly addressing the public who are the actors as targeted users. Considering the short term goal of revolutionizing cancer treatment could disrupt the entire healthcare industry including the way pharmacetucal companies develop, manufacture and market drugs[14].

The various effectuated values of the technological system is -participant empowerment, Respect for participant preferences, data quality and integrity and governance forming the basis to tackle the ethical challenges faced by pharmacology. The stakeholders in route for the development of this technology have mapped the potential threats and oppurtunities to ultimately follow the values of personalization, prevention, affordability, safety, extensibility. The public however has several concerns regarding the future of the technology including the cost when its available at a larger scale and a few group of participants also had issues with the differences in race which could probably alter their genetic makeup. The concept of informed consent is still underdeveloped and the protection of privacy are still issues which inititate public skeptism. However, preventive care, personalized treatment, reduced side effects, lifestyle decisions and an increased life span are benefits gained by the patenits who will experience this form of treatment revolutunizing the healthcare industry.

Despite the various value conflicts, the technology as a whole can be benefited greatly by designing values specific to technology, giving strong infrastructural foundation for research and applying secondary emphasis on research[?]. Incorporating data protection by avoiding unaithorized access, avoiding misuse of personal data, Design of new operating models and organizational cultures which is more agile and adaptable to changes [0] and design integration should be possible across all contexts. the design of values in an institutional context would be more towards regulation through governance in the asymmetry formed in expertise/responsibility, medical educators, legislators and institutional proponents should have strong engagement with the public before investment in infrastructure, stakeholders should work more closely together actively working with non traditional pharma personnels like regulators and policy makers to jointly develop standards. [0]

Thereby, analyzing the extent of integration requiring a transition across various specializations rasing a question of possibility to align contemplation and intellect in such a way that variations cease to exist, and with the invovlvement of governance how secure the extensive data procured would be.

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