Rhetorical Analysis of an Example of Professional Writing

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Writing is a method of communication between the author and the audience.. The writer should use different methods to communicate effectively with the audience. A good author, first of all, is not only the author, he should also put himself in the audience’s point of view. When the author tries to convince his audience of his point of view, there are four important factors to be aware of. These are sense of logic (logos), emotions (pathos), the author’s authority (ethos), and the timelines of the work (kairos). These are rhetorical appeals. If the author wants to write a narrative, he/she should use other techniques like description (providing details), exemplification (using examples), etc.

For better understanding how the author effectively creates works, I will make a rhetorical analysis of a professional document to investigate the author’s rhetorical appeal and analyze his rhetorical strategies. Clifford J. Shultz wrote the article titled “Marketing: The Next 40,000 Years.” The article was published in the Journal of Marketing in 2017. This article is a reflection and response to a long term macro perspective by Robert Lusch. For more than 40 years, professor Robert Lusch has been an outstanding and influential thought leader and market contributor. In his book, lusch addresses key themes of human, social and marketing evolution and challenges marketing scholars to think about how to reduce the cost of human activity, especially communication. These costs add up to a threat to human survival; They also provide opportunities to reduce social conflict through a better understanding of conflict resolution theory, related marketing applications, and corrective actions guided by complementary macro-marketing rules. In the author’s opinion, the full participation and cooperation of individuals, organizations and government agencies is the key to the improvement of efficiency and effectiveness, development in a fair and sustainable environment, which is related to the health and long-term survival of human beings in an increasingly globalized world. The author’s comments are a further illustration of professor Robert (Bob) Rasch’s article. The author appreciates his keen and sublime insight and thought-provoking thoughts. According to the author’s own words, this article may be helpful for Rasch to guide some of his wisdom towards basic macro marketing concepts and goals as explained and evaluated by the author. Most importantly, the author hopes that this simplified interpretation of Lusch’s point of view can also be interpreted as a tribute to Lusch’s great professional achievements and his tireless contribution to all stakeholders in the marketing market.

Analysis of Rhetorical Appeals


Ethos is an appeal may prove that the author is trustworthy, and the author has the professional background and reliable experience, so the ideas in his article are of high credibility. Clifford J. Shultz got his PhD degree of Post Doctorate Marketing and Social & Organizational Psychology at Columbia University in New York City. He has many years of teaching experience in the field of globalization and macro marketing. His focus is also on sustainable development policies. He also has a long history of research on international and cross-cultural marketing and consumer behavior and food and agribusiness marketing. The author he talked about in the article – Professor Robert (Bob) Lusch, He began his academic career at the University of Oklahoma after graduating from the university of wisconsin-madison in 1975.After 26 years at the University of Oklahoma, including five years as dean (1987-1992), he became dean of the M.J. Neeley School of Business at Texas Christian University in 2000.He has also been a professor of business and marketing at the university of Arizona. Lusch has also written 14 books and 150 articles in professional journals. These two people with expertise in marketing and business make this question authoritative and convincing.


Logo is a literary device that, through the use of reason or logic, persuades the target audience. The author can use facts, case studies, statistics, experiments, logical reasoning, analogies, anecdotes, and so on to convince and convince the audience of the author’s point of view. Clifford J. Shultz, the author of Marketing: the next 40,000 years is using logic in organizing his article to persuade the audience believe in him.

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First, he explains to the audience what is marketing and why it is important for human beings. He explained professor Robert’s view that human development today – from the time of homo sapiens – was due to the development of markets, the exchange of goods that led to human development. The more people communicate with each other, the wider the space is, and the faster progress of human civilization. Then, He began to explain the invisible costs behind this exchange of goods. He gives an example in his article – the purchase of the automobile. To us ordinary people, this is the exchange between goods and cash. But there are hidden costs that we can’t see. A car, its use, the use of gasoline behind it, the emission of gas may damage the environment, people need to pay another fee to protect the environment. In addition, we need to build highways, and more cars means more highways. There are even irreversible costs, such as the share of resources consumed, irreversible after environmental damage. He used the example and this fact about our environment situation to explain that the production and output of goods in collective activities and the consumption of goods and services are inseparable from the exchange over time. Now, people realize the contradiction between the two situations. On the one hand, we need broad markets and sufficient exchange of goods to achieve the purpose of human development, but on the other hand, the increasing number of goods exchanged and the globalization of the market result in the waste of our resources, we have less and less resources to use, and how to achieve sustainable development has become a dilemma for human beings. Finally, for solving the dilemma, he began to introduce Professor Robert ‘s Theories vis-a`-vis social conflict and its resolution, which policies and actions that have been developed and indeed stimulated to enhance cooperation and inhibit or eliminate destructive conflicts can greatly assist in costing and subsequent cost reduction or elimination. Using professor Lusch’s perspective as a framework, a better understanding of the underlying theory of conflict/cooperation may provide ‘the best advice on how to deal with the institutions that have evolved around the industrial revolution or other types of revolution, which may need to be questioned and challenged’. But understanding is not enough. We must ‘engage with institutions’ to influence the long-term, difficult and enduring task of managing a complex and often conflicting global market trading system in an efficient, effective, fair and sustainable way.

Analysis of Rhetorical Strategies

Process analysis

The strategy in the article Shultz used is the process analysis. Process analysis explain how a phenomena works according to our LLD100A reader. Process analysis can be used in different type of articles depend on how the author wants to explain his/her idea.

The author gave a process analysis when he was trying to explain Professor Robert’s idea about constructive engagement in a complex and conflicted global marketing system. He first pointed out that the fundamental macromarketing premise – markets and marketing the key institutions may determine the future of humanity, because the market and marketing to create a large number of institutions to improve the cognitive efficiency and coordinate the communication and interaction, constructive and responsible participation or in all stakeholders in the global marketing system, directly or through democracy and representative government and affect their forces, will improve the market and the marketing of goods and services provided by the management right. Then he explains the scope of the market system of mutual benefit and exchange of performance, if the market design is good, it will have the responsible marketing management system, it has a large capacity, including authorization disenfranchised, reduce conflict and violence and disastrous consequences – now many intangible to tangible cost, build community cooperation, and improve the quality of individual life and social welfare, the local and global. Finally, the author points out that to achieve the goal of sustainable development, we must request all the stakeholders, including the credible government, non-governmental organizations, can accept the macro marketing enterprises as a catalyst, let them give full play to the ability to coordinate the micro and macro, with as many stakeholders to promote sustainable development. These institutions should be able to encourage cooperation, curb conflict, and create prosperous societies based on sustainable and efficient ideas.


Through the analysis of professor Shultz’s article, through his step-by-step logical explanation of professor Robert’s views. As professor Robert pointed out, in today’s world, our market and marketing are developing rapidly. Globalization is inevitable and the demand for resources is increasing. However, there are fewer and fewer resources available on earth. We should see these neglected costs in the great trading world. These neglected resources are the key to the sustainability of our species. In order to achieve the goal of sustainable development, enterprises should strengthen cooperation and coordination, preferably with the participation of the government, should aim at the pursuit of long-term interests, should work together with all mankind to make efforts for us to live on this earth for another 40,000 years.

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