Research Study: Identification of Cognitive Impairment and Other Forms of Dementia as the Health Threats to the Aging Population
The title describes the main purpose of the study. The title of this article is well stated to enable one to note that the study will be on objectively measured physical activity and the cognitive function in older adults (Zhu et al, 2017). The research study is clearly noted to be focused on primary care settings. Furthermore, the title has clearly identified the designated population under study thus making it easy to locate the major focus of the study and the key topics under discussion. As a matter of fact, the title was good as it succinctly and sufficiently identified key variables and the sample population under study.
The research team formulated a good abstract which was brief, clear and concise. The abstract summarized the key features of the study. The purpose of the study that illustrated the aim of the study was well stated. Apart from that, the abstract also adequately described the research methodologies applied by the research team (Zhu et al, 2017). The results of the study were well analyzed and interpreted using appropriate tools. Therefore, the abstract was able to present an overview of the research study.
Introduction enabled the researchers to identify cognitive impairment such as Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia as the greatest health threats to the aging population. The research problem is easy to locate and identify. Appropriate measures are being recommended to reduce the risk of many chronic diseases associated with aging such as Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia (Zhu et al, 2017). This makes the research problem researchable and significant to overall clinical practice. The research team had a clear purpose statement that included engagement in physical activity to delay the onset of cognitive impairment and the incidence of dementia or Alzheimer’s diseases in the aging population.
In addition, the research problem included an assessment of whether PA could be used to eliminate and control chronic diseases associated with aging. The team developed the problem statement that built a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study. Apart from that, there was a good link between the research problem and the methods applied. The research team used a quantitative approach to make the research more objective and deductive to problem-solving.
Research Questions and Hypotheses
This study enables one to understand the factors that influence chronic diseases in older adults. In a nutshell, the research team had a hypothesis that identified objectively measured physical activity as the intervention for diseases associated with the old age (Zhu et al, 2017). This was later supported by the literature review. In addition, the hypotheses had flowed from previous research works which were properly worded. Therefore, the hypotheses predicted interrelationships between variables.
The literature review of the study was up to date and based on primary sources. Previous studies supported the study by appraising that physical activity delayed the onset of chronic diseases associated with aging (Sofi et al, 2011). Furthermore, appropriate research materials were used including peer-reviewed journals. The review critically appraises the identified research materials with comparisons to different key studies being achieved. Gaps in different literature were also identified. The literature review was bias-free and objective with researchers paraphrasing the quotes from the reviewed materials. Therefore, this review draws pertinent conclusions to implication the topic has to nurse practice.
The study had a well-developed conceptual framework. The key concepts such as cognitive decline, memory, executive function, accelerometer, and an aging population were sufficiently defined conceptually (Zhu et al, 2017). Therefore, the conceptual framework was made explicit and appropriate for the research problem. The study lacked a conceptual theory.
Protection of Human Rights
The approval of the study was granted by the institutional review boards of Arizona State University, University of South Carolina and the University of Alabama at Birmingham. All the participants presented the consent form (Zhu et al, 2017). The inclusion and exclusion criteria were well stated and justified.
The research team used longitudinal and quantitative descriptive research design. The research design was appropriate for the study as it enabled the research team to find answers to most of the research questions. The research team had adequate contact with the participants across the United States (Zhu et al, 2017). The design also took into consideration the ethnic groups, race, and gender of the population under study. In addition, the research team made comparisons to enhance the interpretability of the findings at the end of the study. Therefore, the design was able to minimize threats to reliability and validity of the study.
Population and Sample
The designated population under study was sufficiently described and it included racially older adults (Zhu et al, 2017). The setting and sample population were described in sufficient detail. The researchers used an appropriate approach in the selection of the participants without discrimination. The sample size used by the researchers was adequate thus enhanced the representativeness of the sample.
Data Collection and Measurement
The research team conducted collected data using computer-assisted telephone interviews to obtain demographic information and medical history. In addition, the participants were given accelerometer and log sheets with instructions to obtain a daily activity log (Hooker et al, 2011). Apart from that, the research team collected participants’ characteristics during enrollment and placed into the parent REGARDS study. The research staff determined body mass index from measured height and weight. Besides, blood pressure was obtained as the average of two measurements using a standard protocol. The Six-Item Screener(SIS) was used to define the cognitive impairment of the participants.
The estimates of the frequency, intensity and the duration of the physical activity were measured using an Actical. In addition, the participant having usable data, absolute time spent in sedentary behavior(SED), light-intensity PA(LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous –intensity PA(MVPA) and the total proportions of each parameter were measured (Hooker et al, 2016). The staff provided detailed information on the data collection and measurement processes. Data were collected using two methods to achieve triangulation. The research team collected sufficient data which was of sufficient richness and depth.
The researchers described and adequately developed and implemented an intervention for the study population. Most participants received the intervention based on eligibility. The researchers were well trained and conducted the research in an organized manner (Zhu et al, 2017). Data was collected appropriately using computer-assisted devices which minimized the business.
The descriptive statistics sufficiently gave a description of key variables as well as the sample’s characteristics. Percentages could be identified for nominal data with continuous data utilizing standard deviations and mean. From the description of the statistics, one could get a clear outlook of the composition of the participants as per the outlined variables. Inferential statistics were used by the researchers so as to elicit the differences that occur in the study population. The ANOVA or chi-square tests were used to test the differences in a demographic variable, accelerometer variables and cognitive tests across quartiles of MVPA%(Zhu et al, 2017).
The researchers also used logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio cognitive impairment and the associated 95% confidence interval. The study also utilized the use of regression analysis to enhance the validity and reliability of the findings (Hooker et al, 2016). The analysis applied answered the research questions adequately. The researchers went ahead to evaluate the problems of missing values and adequately addressed them. An adequate sample population was used to minimize errors. Therefore, the analysis achieved appropriate taxonomy in the study.
The researchers presented information about statistical significance as well as the confidence intervals. The findings were adequately summarized with the use of tables and figures. In addition, the findings were presented in a manner that enhanced meta-analysis together with sufficient information needed for evidence-based practice.
Interpretation of the Findings
The research team interpreted the major findings of the study and discussed them within the context of the previous research as well as on the conceptual framework. The causal inferences were deducted in that the objectively measured physical activity could be used to delay the onset of the chronic diseases in the aging population (Zhu et al, 2017). The interpretations are well-founded and consisted of the study’s limitations. Implications.
As a matter of fact, the researchers discussed the implications of the study for clinical practice. They recommended that older adults should objectively engage in physical activity to lower the risk of suffering from chronic diseases associated with old age. The implications are reasonable and complete.
The research team provided a well-written and organized report that provided sufficient details for critical analysis. The report was also written in a manner that enhances the validity and reliability of the study making them applicable in clinical practice.
The study was conducted by a highly trained research team who had clinical, substantive and methodologic qualifications thus enhancing the reliability of the findings. The researchers were also experienced in research studies as they belonged to REGARDS.
The conclusion was clear and elaborative. Furthermore, the research staff had adequate clinical, substantive and methodological qualifications and experience thus enhancing the confidence in the findings and their interpretations. Based on the critical analysis used in the study, the findings appear trustworthy. Therefore, I have full confidence in the truth value of the results. The study is important as it contributes to meaningful evidence that can be used in nursing practice to bring change.
Cite this Essay
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below