Scientist Max Planck proposed the similarities between energy and the frequency of radiation in 1990, he discovered that energy can be able to emit or absorb individual chucks of quanta. In 1917 it was discovered that light has the ability to emit and absorb individual chunks of quantums particles Albert Einstein called this photons. With the help of Planck’s law of radiation he described this process as coefficients for absorption, spontaneous and stimulated emission of EM radiation. Einstein's theory was that electrons can stimulate to smit light of specific wavelengths. In 1955 Nikolai Basov discovered negative absorption when he was trying to find ways of moving electrons around atoms also known as the pumping method. In 1971 MASER was discovered by Nikolia and Charles H, this discovery is what produces and emits EM radiation in microwaves. This was the first device that was able to prove Einstein's theory he proposed in 1917. MASER technology was used in ultra-sensitive detector and also radio signals. Theodore Maiman was able to build the first working laser, using a cylinder of ruby, coated with silver to allow them to reflect in 1960, it used photographic flash lamps for the lasers’s pump source. In laser we use today was first ever built 1969 it was built with helium neon, this generated a continuous beam of light.
LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers are packets of light energy called photons. The photons in the light travel one behind each other, creating a constant wave in phase, this causes the beam to seem like one continuous wave. The waves created are perfectly parallel. There is a cylinder in lasers that is packed with gases or solid crystal, usual helium, neon or ruby. Principles of laser are based on quantum mechanics, explained by when an excited electron from lower energy to a much higher energy level it will not stay that way, when an electron is in an excited state it will decay over time to an unoccupied lower energy state. When this happens it emits a photon, this is called “spontaneous emission” Energy is supplied by the energy pumping system. Electrons of energy are trapped in the metastable energy levels. The energy pumping system produces a population inversion, in order to produce the laser. This begins a chain reaction causing the photons to emit spontaneously energy hitting other atoms stimulating their electrons to change from metastable energy to lower energy levels, emitting photons of the same phases, direction and wavelengths. The photons are reflected back where the chain reaction occurs and increases the number of photons. Some photons will reflect and the rest will appear as a laser beam. The discovery of lasers is used in weapons, aim sights, and eye target. Lasers are placed upon a weapon to create a beam of light giving the user a more precise shot, they are also used as a weapon that can be admitted onto opponents causing them discomfort and causing them to flee the fight. Lasers are recognized as a very powerful and dangerous tool when used improperly. Lasers can be very hazardous towards humans as it has the ability to harm the human eye, the wavelength of the laser can burn the cornea of the eye blinding the victim. With higher voltage lasers, they have the ability to burn through materials and objects with ease and can also burn the human skin. Lasers are a hazardous tool and must be used with caution. When used correctly lasers can be very beneficial towards humans as it is used heavily in the medical field, lasers are used to perform many types of surgery such as laser surgery, which involves, your eyes, brain, hair, kidneys, etc. They have also been used to treat cancer, lasers are used by shrinking or destroying cancer cells and tumor in order to stop the growth of them. Which can potentially lead to other health risks.
In conclusion, lasers have come a long way, from just theories to now being used in our everyday lives. It is one of the greatest inventions and has helped the worlds everyday life, and with the technology still improving day by day, Laser may allow us to discover more stuff outside our own world.
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