Proper Management of Waste And Garbage Monitoring System

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Abstract

Waste collection today is inefficiently performed using static routes and schedule some bins are overflowing with waste causing unnecessary clean up costs. This type of inefficiency waste both time and money and harmful for environment, It’s creates unhealthy conditions for people also it makes that place ugly. At the same moment the bad smell is also spread.

To avoid this situation we are design a system Application this will be able to predict the next day of dustbin when it will be full and show the shortest path to collect them and also recommend to how much garbage dustbin to be placed at the place.

Keywords — Internet of Things, Depth sensor, Load sensor, Moisture sensor, Wireless sensor Network.

Introduction

Today’s population is increasing rapidly which result in lack of public awareness and people avoid to invest money in program related to the waste management. So that it creating a huge health issue all over the world. Proper management of waste material is important to maintain the healthy environment to live. Garbage may contain material waste from an industrialized process like industrial, commercial,mining or agricultural operations or from the community and household activities. The advanced technologies device in our daily lives have made us smart and efficient. Such a transformation is required for any developing city for efficient management of citywide activities and becomes a smart city.

In city we see that the garbage bins or dustbins are placed at public places are overflowing. It creates unhygienic condition for people. Also it creates ugliness to that place. At the same time bad smell is also spread. To avoid all this situation we are implementing a project called «Garbage Monitoring System». This system monitor about the level of garbage collected in the dustbin and also shows the shortest path to reach up‑to that dustbin. To achieve optimal usage sensors are place inside and under the dustbin. Sensors can be monitored by the system and using the status of the bins, garbage collection routes can also be planned.

Depending upon the conditions of the garbage bins, they would have to be collected by the cleaners. We aim to provide an optimal route for the same purpose and give a classification of dry and wet garbage by using moisture sensor. This will make the collection system more efficient. In case a bin.

Overflows, authorities must be informed instantaneously. This would be achieved by sending SMS or email to concerned authorities for further action.

Literature Review

A journal article in large no of researches have been done previously on such waste management which really has a very good scope in eliminating those problem. All sensors which are working on Wi‑Fi based communication with the central server. The server calculates shortest path for collection of the waste from dustbin and escalates it to the further collection process. Also the system calculating weight and type of waste inserted in them using a waste type detection system.

A journal article in represents the application of proposed model of garbage management using Internet of Things for smart cities in organizing the garbage collection system of residential or commercial area. In the proposed system, the level of waste material in the garbage bins has been detected with the help of ultrasonic sensor and it will continuously communicate to the authorized control room through GSM module. Microcontroller is used to interface the sensor system with GSM system. A GUI is also developed to supervise the desired information related to the garbage for various selected location. This system will help to assure a healthy and hygienic environment.

A journal article in The Internet of Things, as expected infrastructure for envisioned concept of Smart City, brings new possibilities for the city management. Internet of Things vision introduces promising and economical solutions for massive data collection and its analysis which can be applied in many domains and so make them operating more efficiently.Discussing one of the most challenging issues municipal waste‑collection within the Smart City. To optimize the logistic procedure of waste collection, we use own genetic algorithm implementation. The presented solution provides calculation of more efficient garbage‑truck routes. As an output, we provide a set of simulations focused on mentioned area.

A journal article in Smart Cities constitute the future of civil habitation. Internet of Things enables innovative services exploiting sensor data from sensors embedded in the city. Waste collection is treated as a potential service which exploits robustness and cost efficiency of a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper we propose a dynamic routing algorithm which is robust and copes when a truck is overloaded or damaged and need replacement. Incorporate a system model which assumes two kinds of trucks for waste collection, the Low Capacity Trucks (LCTs) and the High Capacity Trucks (HCTs). By incorporating HCTs we achieve reduction of the waste collection operational costs because route trips to the dumps are reduced due to high waste storage capacity of these trucks.

A journal article in the Internet of Things provides a virtual view, via the Internet Protocol, to a huge variety of real life objects, ranging from a car, to a teacup, to a building, to trees in a forest. Its appeal is the ubiquitous generalized access to the status and location of any «thing» we may be interested in. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are well suited for long‑term environmental data acquisition for Internet of Things representation. It presents the functional design and implementation of a complete WSN platform that can be used for a range of long‑term environmental monitoring Internet of Things applications. The application requirements for low cost, high number of sensors, fast deployment, long lifetime, low maintenance, and high quality of service are considered in the specification and design of the platform and of all its components.

Implementation

Existing System

As city inhabitants throw garbage into the weight of the bin increases. It can be used to analyse if bin is actually full. We use a load sensor that would provide us with the current load in the bin. Throwing garbage also result in the garbage bin is full. this result in an increasing in the height of the bin content. It can be analysed by the use of ultrasonic sensor that would give updates about the current condition of the bin. A capacitive moisture sensor is used to measure the moisture content in solid waste and odor corresponding. For separating dry and wet garbage.

The system that would send SMS to the server at periodic interval. The main aim is to provide optimal route for the same purpose. This will make the collection system more efficient. In case a bin overflows, authorities must be informed instantaneously. This would be achieved by sending SMS or email to concerned authorities for further action. As cleaner clean the bins, they would report its status as collected. This would help generate the reports for authorities and user to check if garbage bins are regularly emptied. As a part of the objective, we also include manual reporting of filled garbage bins as an option to users. They can report the system of overflowing dustbins that are un‑automated and thus can be included in planning garbage collection routes. This would also help integrate currently placed bins around the city.

Sensors

Sensors which are use in our application like ultrasonic sensor, moisture sensor, load cell sensor are embedded in the garbage bin to continuously monitor the condition of the dustbin like checking the height, weight, moisture in the waste or dustbin. The values of all sensor are display on ultrasonic display.

Mobile Application

It will contain cleaners Information in that particular area and this application will contain the sub module to send and receive the alert. The nearest cleaner will be informed so that it avoids overflow.

Database

It is used to save the data received from the garbage unit and if required data can be retrieved.

Arduino Uno Board

This board is used to receive data from the sensors. Process received data and the relative information will be sent to the respective authority where the server is present.

GSM Module

GSM module is used to send and receive the information about the status of the waste in the dustbin over the distance.

Algorithms Used

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ID 3 ((Iterative Dichotomiser 3)

ID3 builds a decision tree from a fixed set of example. Resulting tree is used to classify future sample. The leaf nodes of the decision tree contain the class names whereas a non‑leaf nodes is decision nodes. Decision nodes is an attribute test on each branch being a possible value of the attribute.ID3 uses the information gain and entropy which helps to decide which attribute goes into a which decision node.

  1. Calculate the entropy of every attribute a of the dataset S.
  2. Split the set S into subset using the attribute for which the resulting entropy after splitting is minimized or equivalently information gain is maximum
  3. Make decision tree node containing that attributes.
  4. Recur on subsets using remaining attributes.

Travelling Sales Problem

In this algorithm a list of cities and distance between each pair of cities are given. Main aim is to find shortest possible route that visits each city and returns to the origin city.

It is NP hard problem in combinational optimization. The branch and bound strategy divides a problem to be solved into a number of sub problems. It is system for solving a sequence of sub problem each of which may have multiple possible solution and where solution is chosen for one sub problem may effect the possible solution of later sub problems.

Suppose it is required to minimize an objective function. suppose we have method for getting a lower bound on the cost of any solution among those in the set of solution represented by some subset. If the best solution found so far cost less than the lower bound for this subset, we need not explore this subset at all.

Let S be some subset of solution.

L (S) = an inferior bound on the price of any solution belonging to S.

Let C = Cost of the best solution found so far

If C. L (S), Then we need to explore S because it may contain a better solution.

Advantages

The Garbage will be collected on time to time basis.

There would not be any bad smell around the bin.

Real time notification to collect the garbage.

Saving on fuel consumption, thus reducing the threat to the environment.

Make garbage collection process efficiently.

Help in city wide garbage management

Disadvantages

It required well structure hardware.

The onetime cost of installation will be higher than the present technique.

Need of good sensor for regular sense dust.

It requires internet connectivity for all nodes.

Conclusion

Analysis of different existing system, avoid overflowing of garbage dustbin and separate dry and wet from the bin in sub residential area. Separation of garbage is done previously either loaded manually or with the help of loaders in traditional trucks. Labors‑intensive loader takes time reduces the productivity of the vehicles and manpower deployed. Manual handling of waste poses hazards to the health of workers as the waste highly contaminated. So this method which is used in our project will keeping the city clean and healthy.

References

  1. Sudipata saha, Robin karlose, Dr. Himadri nath Saha, sayan Tapadar, Shinjini Ray «optimizing Routine collection Efficinecy in IoT based garbage Collection Monitorng Sustem», IEEE 2017.
  2. Sanhita saha, Shubham Kumar, Rakhee Singh, Amendra Singh,” Waste management usnng Internet of Things (IoT)», IEEE 2017.
  3. Sagar Wadhwa, Sahil Mirchandani, Richard Joseph, Preeti Wadhwa, «IoT Enabled Dustbins», IEEE 2017.
  4. KasliwalManasi H., SuryawanshiSmitkumar B. «A Novel Approach to Garbage Management Using Internet of Things for Smart Cities» International Journal of Current Trends in Engineering & Research (IJCTER) 2016.
  5. RadekFujdiak,PavelMasek, PetrMlynek, Jiri Misurec,‟ Using Genetic Algorithm for Advanced Municipal Waste Collection in Smart City», 2016 10thInternational Symposium on Communication Systems.
  6. RadekFujdiak, PavelMasek, PetrMlynek, Jiri Misurec, Ekaterina Olshannikova «Using Genetic Algorithm for Advanced Municipal Waste Collection in Smart City» 2016 IEEE.
  7. SaharIdwan, Junaid Ahmed Zubairi, Imran Mahmood,’’ Smart Solutions for Smart Cities: Using Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Dumpster Management», 2016 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems.
  8. AA. M. TheodorosAnagnostopoulos, Arkady Zaslavsky, «Robust waste collection exploiting cost efficiency of iot potentiality in smart cities,’International Conference on Recent Advances in Internet of Things, pp. 16, 2015.
  9. M.R.K WaikhomReshmi, RamkumarSundaram «Sensor unit for waste management: A better method for frequent data updating system»,’ICSEMR, pp. 15, 2014.
  10. Mihai T. Lazarescu «Design of a WSN Platform for Long Term Environmental Monitoring for IoT Applications» IEEE JOURNAL ON EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2013.
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