Assessing Adolescent Knowledge and Attitudes towards Reproductive Health

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Reproductive health is the important component in the adolescent age, as the one which is in highly risk group to get different sexual and reproductive health problem. Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system’s functions and processes. And sexual relating to, or associated with sex or sexes. World Health Organization's (WHO) definition reproductive health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. UN agencies claim sexual and reproductive health includes physical, as well as psychological well-being vis-a-vis sexuality. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Aim of the research is to assess the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among the adolescent age ranging from 10 years old up to the 19 years old. Also to know the altitude toward the sexual and reproductive health.

Adolescent health lead to a major worldwide burden and has a great deal of additional and diverse complications compared to adult reproductive health such as parenting issues and early pregnancy, problem on accessing contraception and safe abortions, lack of healthcare access, and high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, and mental health issues. Each of those can be affected by economic, outside political and socio-cultural influences. Adolescent female, they are almost complete. There are body still growing, therefore adding a pregnancy to them expose to many complication related to pregnancies, including anemia, HIV and other STIs, postpartum hemorrhage and other postpartum complication, also can get mental disorder like depression, anxiety, bi polar mood disorder and suicidal thoughts or attempt.

Reproductive health knowledge including the knowledge about the contraceptive method to prevent pregnancy such as contraceptive pills, withdraw method, calendar method, use of the condom, intrauterine device and implanon. Knowledge related to sexual transmitted disease [STD] for example HIV, syphilis, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, chlamydia, HPV, gonorrhea, and genital herpes, which can be protected through having safe sex, have single honesty partner, usage of latex condoms greatly reduces although not completely eliminated the risk of catching or spreading STDs when you have sex to affected person, avoiding sharing towels or underclothing, wash before and after intercourse, getting vaccination of hepatitis B, if you have a problem with drug or alcohol abuse get help, people who are drunk or on drunk or drugs often fail to have safe sex, although all that can prevent transmit ion only effective method is not having sex at all. Knowledge about abortion, self-way of doing abortion, and knowing side effect of abortion, contraindication and indication of doing abortion. Also sexual reproductive health knowledge including the right age to be marriage and right age to be pregnated, knowledge about genital mutilation both in men and women what advantage have and the disadvantage. Also to know what to do when you get infection or pregnancy.

Knowledge About Contraceptives and Sexual Transmited Infection

Contraception, also known as fertility control, is a device method used to prevent getting pregnancy. Family planning method or device has been used since ancient many years ago, but effective and safe methods have been available in the 20th century. Planning, making available and using birth control also know as family planning. Some cultures limit or discourage access to family planning method because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable.

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The most effective and efficiency methods of birth control are sterilization in which it involve vasectomy in males and tubal ligation in females. intrauterine devices (IUDs), and implantable birth control are also effective but not 100% as the vasectomy and tubal ligation. This is followed by a number of hormone-based methods including oral pills, patches, vaginal rings, and injections. Less effective methods include physical barriers such as condoms, diaphragms and birth control sponges and fertility awareness methods. The least effective methods are spermicides and withdrawal by the male before ejaculation. The bad this with the sterilization once it’s done it can’t be undone; all other methods are reversible, most immediately upon stopping them. Among all those method of the family planning method and device only use of the female and male condom can prevent transmission of the sexual transimmited infection, including HIV. Emergency birth control can prevent pregnancy if taken within the 72 to 120 hours after unprotected sex. Some argue not having sex as a form of birth control, but abstinence-only sex education may increase teenage pregnancies if offered without birth control education, due to non-compliance.

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also known as sexually transmitted diseases (STD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Many times STIs initially do not cause symptoms. This results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. STIs can be transmitted to an infant before or during childbirth and may result in poor outcomes for the baby. Some STIs may cause problems with the ability to get pregnant.

More than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites can be transmitted through sexual activity. Bacterial STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Viral STIs include genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts. Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis. While usually spread by sex, some STIs can be spread by non-sexual contact with donor tissue, blood, breastfeeding, or during childbirth. STI diagnostic tests are usually easily available in the developed world, but this is often not the case in the developing world.

The most effective way of preventing STIs is by not having sex. Some vaccinations may also decrease the risk of certain infections including hepatitis B and some types of HPV. Safer sex practices such as use of condoms, having a smaller number of sexual partners, and being in a relationship where each person only has sex with the other also decreases the risk. Circumcision in males may be effective to prevent some infections. During school, comprehensive sex education may also be useful. Most STIs are treatable or curable. Of the most common infections, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis are curable, while herpes, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, and HPV are treatable but not curable. Resistance to certain antibiotics is developing among some organisms such as gonorrhea.

In 2015, about 1.1 billion people had STIs other than HIV/AIDS.About 500 million were infected with syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis. At least an additional 530 million people have genital herpes and 290 million women have human papillomavirus. STIs other than HIV resulted in 108,000 deaths in 2015. In the United States there were 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections in 2010. Historical documentation of STIs date back to at least the Ebers papyrus around 1550 BC and the Old Testament. There is often shame and stigma associated with these infections. The term sexually transmitted infection is generally preferred over sexually transmitted disease or venereal disease, as it includes those who do not have symptomatic disease.

Other knowledge is about abortion. Abortion is the ending of pregnancy due to removingsurvive outside the uterus.An abortion that occurs spontaneously is also known as a miscarriage. When deliberate steps are taken to end a pregnancy, it is called an induced abortion, or less frequently an 'induced miscarriage'. The word abortion is often used to mean only induced abortions. A similar procedure after the fetus could potentially survive outside the womb is known as a 'late termination of pregnancy' or less accurately as a 'late term abortion'.most common complication include, haemorrhage, complication related to surgical evacuation, uterine perforation ore rupture, cervical tear which may result to incompetance, excessive currettage which may result into adenomyosis, infection which may result into infertility and ashermansydrome, also abortion can lead into RH isoimmunition if the ant-D is not given or if the dose is inadequate and psychologicaltrauma.


Adolescent do differ in sexual and reproductive health. They do differ based on educational level, age, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnicity, and resources available in their environment. To those of low economic status it’s possible to lack the access to the education and resource for the appropriate sexual and reproduction health to maintain their reproductive health. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a satisfying safe sex life, responsible and that they have the ability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, how and when to do so. One of the meaning of this implies that women and men should to be informed about to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.

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