The Methods of Fire Prevention, Awareness and Safety

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Introduction

Fire prevention and awareness should be tolerated and practiced by all the crew members and passengers. In this situation, the unity, cooperation and camaraderie of all the people would surely work. Fire would be risky to all the passengers and crew members. A fire on board a vessel is a very serious situation, unless the fire can be quickly put out, there is a risk of spreading it and gaining momentum to very fast becoming a frightening threat to the vessel and lives of those who are onboard. Barry (2017) every year fire on board vessels lead to the loss of lives and severe damage to ships. Many fires start in engine rooms and machinery spaces. Ship fires are devastating, especially for passengers ships because it is difficult to safely evacuate people out at sea. It is also dangerous when ship carries inflammable cargo such as gasoline and oil. To prevent such devastation incidents, it is important that ships and vessels have adequate fire protection and fire detection systems installed and that these systems are maintained by licensed technicians and fire fighters.

The Raunek in Marine Safety (2015) Fire fighting drill helps the ship’s crew to understand the basics of fire prevention and to prepare the crew in dealing with an emergency situation that arise because of a fire on board ship. It makes each and every crew familiar with the task he or she has to perform in case of actual emergency and helps the crew to understand the procedure to operate a particular fire fighting precautions that are to be taken before operating the fire fighting equipment. The Regulatory Reform Fire Safety Orders (2005) the Order is designed to provide a minimum fire safety standard in all non-domestic premises with a few exceptions. If it is a workplace it designates the employer the Responsible Person (RP). If any other person has to some extent control then they could have duties under the Order. If it is not a workplace then any person having control to some extent or the owner and can be designated the Responsible Person those persons or a person acting on their behalf, are required to carry out certain fire safety duties which include ensuring the general fire precautions are satisfactory and conducting a fire risk assessment. If more than five persons are employed it has to be a written fire risk assessment.

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA, 2003) have identified fire safety training as a way of increasing public fire safety knowledge and improving their response to a fire with the aim of reducing the number of fire-related casualties. In spite of fire safety training programs currently available, it is unclear why reports indicate a lack of fire safety knowledge, delayed threat recognition, and delayed evacuation among the general community, especially among younger and older persons.

The safety of all passengers and crew members has always been top priority aboard our ships. All staff members on-board and ashore are genuinely committed to this corporate safety philosophy; our leading team on-board is selected on this basis. Regular inspections and check-ups, as well as continuous safety exercises are part of day-to-day life for us, because every employee – both on-board and ashore is aware of his or her major responsibility. On-board the ships of Hapag-Lloyd Cruises, a competent and qualified crew are dedicated to the well-being and the safety of all our guests around the clock.

The National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC, 2000) have outlined the importance of fire safety knowledge in the community’s role in the prevention and preparedness to deal with a fire. It is therefore essential that the community is provided with training to retain an adequate level of fire safety knowledge. It is also important that people retain an adequate level of knowledge about the importance of maintaining functional fire safety equipment.

G. Grant et al., (2000) pointed out that the water has become the most widely used fire-fighting agent because its fire suppression performance is hard to beat. The thermal characteristics of water make it ideally suitable as an extinguishing agent for most types of fire, whether it is used to extract heat directly from the flames, the hot products of combustion or from the surface of the fuel. The phase change from liquid water to water vapour (steam) is particularly effective in extracting thermal energy and the production of large quantities of water vapour may further contribute to fire extinguishment by reducing the oxygen concentration of the surrounding atmosphere, particularly where the fire is confined Fire safety is very important in the field of fire fighting and fire prevention. The purpose of fire safety is to eliminate injuries. There are many different forms of safety. There are also safety programs for fire-fighters. The main goals of the safety program consist of preventing damage or loss of equipment, preventing human suffering, casualties, injuries, and exposures to hazardous atmospheres and transmittable diseases. Fire-fighters also have to keep up with physical fitness also. All of these things help to maintain a good safety record. The different types of safety consist of being on the apparatus, safety in the fire station, tool and equipment safety, safety in training, and emergency scene safety.

Safety needs to be respected by everyone who works together or else something can go wrong. Fire-fighters have many health considerations. For instance, they must stay informed about job-related health issues. Riding the apparatus is the most common danger to fire-fighters. Fire-fighters are not Dress while the apparatus is in motion. Fire-fighters must also have fastened seat belts while in motion. If sirens exceed 90 decibels, fire-fighters must also have ear protection. This is all to ensure safety to the fire-fighters and his company. Fire-fighters should also always use handrails when getting on and off the apparatus. This reduces the chance of slipping or falling from the engine or ladder. Safety in the fire station is as equally important. Hazards in the fire station are not only dangerous to fire-fighters, but to visitors too. Fire-fighters are constantly making sure that the firehouse is safe.

According to Susan (2012), today seafarers should be equipped before entering the cruise line industry. They have different training activities to equip seafarers like fire fighting, Personal Safety and Social Responsibility (PSSR), Basic Safety Training, Familiarization and Crowd and Crisis Management, Ship Familiarization is also part of the training. Competent trainers and resource persons were put together in an intensive training so the trainers will become equipped. A cruise ship worker should know the terms of security and safety of a passage and crew.

On the study of Lucero – Prisno III (2006), seafaring is the most risky profession in the world because half – a million Filipino seafarers constantly face a certain health scenario e.g. Collision and Fire on board the ship are always—life is stake. Wayne Gatchell, (2003) majority of fire fighters are not trained in ship board fire fighting think of a vessel fire in the same way as structure fire. However, vessels are basically miniature cities floating on the water. Shipboard fire fighting is more than putting the “wet stuff on the red stuff.” Although it is true that some tactics used in structural fire fighting can be applied in many cases on shipboard fire fighting, there are tactics specific to shipboard scenarios that must be learned. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1405, guide for Land Based Fire Fighters who respond to marine vessel fires, provides guidance in training fire fighters for shipboard fires.

Theoretical Framework

Fire risk assessments can in theory be carried out by the business owners or their representatives if it can be shown that the person carrying out the risk assessment has sufficient understanding of the guidance. Lucero-Prisno III (2006), seafaring is the most risky profession in the world because half-a million Filipino seafarers constantly face and certain health scenario e.g. Collision, and Fire on board the ship are always life is stake.

According to Hapag-Lloyd Cruises, the safety exercise is mandatory for all passengers and is invariably carried out at the beginning of every cruise and prior to the ship leaving the port of embarkation. In this context, we practice scenarios, such as the important procedure to determine whether all of the passengers are assembled on the deck.

Passengers who embark on their own or in small groups en route will be instructed individually without delay. The on-board language of our entire fleet is German; accordingly, the safety exercises are conducted in German. However, the safety exercise is also carried out in English for guests who do not speak German. In the course of the safety exercise, crew members will demonstrate the correct way of putting on a life jacket, showing the guests escape routes and how to get to the life boats, as well as presenting general rules of conduct in extraordinary situations.

Conceptual Framework

This study was conducted to determine the “The Impact of Fire Fighting Awareness among the Second Year Maritime Students of Central Luzon College of Science and Technology City of San Fernando, Pampanga (S.Y 2019-2020)” One of the factors that will indicate if the students will pass the apprenticeship program is the level of their Awareness. The students must be well trained and moulded in their school to surpass the challenge in their apprentice. This Paradigm of the study used the Input, Process and Output model. The Input contains the profile of the respondents and The Impact of Fire Fighting Awareness among the Second Year Maritime Students. The Process contains the main flow needed for the result of the study: Survey Question, Data Analysis and Observation. The Output, shows how the second year maritime students are very prepared before apprenticeship and the propose program in helping the students to be aware in fire on board.

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Statement of the Problem

The researchers conducted a study on identifying The Impact of Fire Fighting Awareness among the Second Year Maritime Students of Central Luzon College of Science and Technology City of San Fernando, Pampanga S.Y 2019-2020. Through this study, the researchers were able to distinguish and furthermore enhance the preparedness that can persuade future maritime cadets.

Hypothesis

There is a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and the impact of fire fighting awareness among the second year maritime students.

Significance of the Study

The researchers are certain that the results of the study will prove significant to the following: Maritime Students – this study will help the maritime students to primarily prepare themselves on their upcoming apprenticeship program. The study will give them complete knowledge and training to be equipped and well-rounded trainees.

CELTECH – this study will be an eye opener and turning point for the school to extend more effort to provide high quality instructors and training centers to prepare the students in their apprenticeship program. Researchers – This study will enhance the knowledge of researchers themselves to know everything in general to become competent and confident apprentice on board. Future Researchers – this study shall be of help to the future researchers to provide some information to the next generation, this research will be used as local study and a sort of reference in general.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This research study was focused on The Impact of Fire Fighting Awareness among the Second Year Maritime Students of Central Luzon College of Science and Technology City of San Fernando, Pampanga S.Y 2019-2020. The researchers used non-probability from the population as the respondents. The main respondents of this study were the 28 chosen second year Maritime students in CELTECH College because they were have basic training or BT. The researchers want to know the impact of fire fighting awareness of the second year maritime students in CELTECH College. The proposed program may be seminar and refresher about the proper uses of fire fighting equipment. Discussion of the topic was delimited to the profile of the respondents in terms of age and sex, and the propose program to the impact of fire fighting awareness among the second tear maritime students.

Definition of Terms

For a clearer understanding of the study the following terms are defined conceptually or operationally. Fire Fighting - is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires. Fire Fighters – is a rescuer extensively trained in fire fighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fire that threaten life, property and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situation. Fire Prevention – is to educate the public to take precautions to prevent potentially harmful fires, and be educated about surviving them. Maritime – is connected with the sea in relation to navigation, shipping and etc. Collision – is the event which two or more bodies exert forces on each other in about a relatively short time.

Acronyms

  • CELTECH – Central Luzon College of Science and Technology
  • SOLAS – Safety of Life at Sea
  • STCW – Standard of training Certification and Watch Keeping
  • BFP – Bureau of Fire Protection
  • NCIPC – National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control
  • NFPA – National Fire Protection Association
  • PSSR – Person Safety and Social Responsibility

In this chapter, the researchers present the research design, respondents, data collection, data processing and statistical tool and treatment used to answer the specific problems in the study.

Research Design

A descriptive design and co – relational design is employed in this study because they collect and analyze the data. This study is a descriptive research because the main purpose was to describe the Impact of Fire Fighting Awareness based on how to distinguish the fire on board, action to stop the fire and how to use fire equipment’s. This research is also a co – relational because it employed co – relational procedures. One of the main concerns of this research is to surface the variables that are significantly related to the Impact of Fire Fighting Awareness of the respondents which would serves the basis for the aspiring seafarers.

Respondents

The study was conducted at Central Luzon College of Science and Technology during 2nd semester of school year 2018-2019. The respondents of the study are the 51 Marine Transportation students of the Second year students section Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta and Echo of the said school.

Sampling Technique

The respondents are Second year students Section Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta and Echo. Random sampling technique was said to be efficient sampling procedure because everyone has a equal chance to become part of the sample, 30% of the said population was chosen as respondents for this study.

Instruments

In data gathering the researchers administer survey questionnaire to gather data for procuring the information needed on this said study.

Survey Form. These survey forms were distributed in order to gather information. Through the participation of the people in answering the survey forms the researchers are able to identify the problems and know how to improve the study.

Data Collection

The researchers will present a letter that is signed by the researchers’ thesis teacher to administer the questionnaires for the data gathering in Central Luzon College of Science and Technology, City of San Fernando, Pampanga. Upon the approval and revisions from the said authorities, the researchers obtained permission from the College of Maritime Education Dean to distribute the questionnaires. After the request, the researchers did the task to be accomplished. The data for this research will be collected using questionnaire checklist and it was administered personally by the researchers. In conducting the survey to the students, researchers will discuss first to the respondents what the research study was all about before the proper process in gathering data. This research will explain the direction and discussed the questions with mother tongue to avoid confusion, number by number as the respondents answering them. Before leaving the certain class, the researchers will make sure that the questions will be answered and all the necessary information was filled up.

Ethical Consideration

In this study, the respondents who participated joined voluntarily and informed about the aims and objectives of the study. Some literatures from different authors that were used by the researchers in the study were fully referenced. The questionnaires did not contain any discriminating and unacceptable languages that are offensive to any members of the sample group. The questionnaire was designed to gather information for the purpose of the study and personal or private questions to respondents were prohibited. The researchers prioritized and respected the dignity of the respondents in the study. They protected the privacy and confidentiality of the students.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The researchers labelled the indicators of impact of fire fighting awareness among the students, descriptive statistics was employed such as frequency distribution and weighted mean. The researchers utilized descriptive numerical to further determine the impact of fire fighting awareness of Second year students, Section Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta and Echo. For the Impact of Fire Fighting Awareness, the following scale with corresponding values was used.

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