In the following assignment, I will be researching and explaining the importance, roles, and responsibilities of different levels of government in the UK.
The European Parliament is made up of 705 members who are directly elected and represent all countries in the European Union. The European Parliament decides on EU legislation. EU legislations are the foundation of all the ground rules and how the EU handles things. The UK has left the European Union.
These 705 members, or MEPs, have three main roles. They are constantly reading through new laws and deciding whether they should get passed or rejected. They also make amendments to old laws that have already been passed but this does happen often. They also supervise institutions in the EU and decide the budgets. However, the members-only supervise the suggestions. After they are accepted they get forwarded to the president of the EU Commissions, this is where they will be approved and passed. Finally, the 705 MEPs establishes the EU budget.
The Central Government is made up of three branches; The legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. Each of these branches has its roles and say in what happens in the EU. The Central Government is a controlling power that oversees a unitary state. The Central Government is responsible for maintaining national security and exercising international diplomacy. This includes the right to sign binding treaties. These responsibilities are not granted to lower levels of government as they are more fragile and important decisions. To sum it up, The Central Government has the responsibility and power to create laws for the whole country and oversee what happens with local governments.
Devolution is the act of giving a certain amount of power to a government on a small level such as giving power to a government on a local or regional level. It is a form of higher-ups transferring power to a small-based government. Examples of devolved parliament include the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Assembly, and the Northern Ireland Assembly.
The Scottish Parliament is composed of 129 members that go by “Members of the Scottish Parliament”. After they are elected they run for four years under what is known as the “Additional Member System”. 73 members of the Scottish Parliament each represent a group of people elected by the “Plurality System” The latest general election to take place was on the 5th of May, 2016. (Each phrase under “were sourced from the wiki page on the Scottish parliament.)
The Welsh Assembly (or as some call it The Senedd) is a devolved executive of Wales. There are 60 members known as the members of the Senedd. The members are elected and they have a term of 5 years. There are also 40 more members elected to represent smaller geographical locations. The government is made up of ministers and deputy ministers. Ministers attend cabinet meetings, however, deputy ministers do not. Normally, the largest party in the Senedd forms the Welsh Government.
The Northern Ireland Assembly is a democratically elected party of 90 members that are commonly known as the Members of the Legislative Assembly. The Northern Ireland Assembly has the power to legislate on a large scale that isn’t explicitly reserved for any other parliament. Each member of local authorities is called a councilor. They are elected in local elections, which are held in Ireland every 5 years.
Local authorities are typically there purely for the safety of the country/wherever this happens to be taking place and its needs. Local authorities are responsible for a wide range of public services in many areas including NHS, Police, Armed forces, Museums, etc. Local authorities are also able to put together and maintain a list of voters in the area. In short, local authorities must maintain and provide for a small geographical location in almost every way except for laws and regulations.
A Regional Government has slightly more power than a local government they have to cater to a wider area. A regional government is responsible for, typically, a country’s health care system, police services, refuse disposal, and the main economic growth. They will also create budgets for local governments for them to make repairs or pay for free public services. The regional government must also take into consideration the safety of those who live in the area they are accountable. They will have to take precautionary measures against viruses, floods, and anything that may threaten the safety of their people.
A regional government is a lot like a local government but just on a larger scale and deals with more important issues and any issues that might be too much for local governments to deal with. More detailed looks at roles within what I have covered include;
The Prime Minister, as a leader of the UK government the prime minister must choose the members of the government and is the principal government figure in the House of Commons. As the minister of the union, the Prime Minister works to make sure all members of the government are always working to improve the country’s living conditions and that they cater to the needs of the people.
A Government Minister is a politician that is head of a ministry and makes decisions alongside other ministers. They are elected by Prime Ministers (with the Queen’s certification) In a Ministry, there will be 23 Cabinet members appointed. Different types of Government Ministers handle specific topics/issues. E.g. the Minister of Health and the Minister of Education.
Mayors are elected by the public. Their role is to be head of the municipal council (a legislative body of a municipality like a city or a town) and Chief Executive Officer of the corporation. They oversee council meetings and take a leading role. A Mayor’s responsibility is to represent their area on a local level. Mayor requires the ability to attract and manage a business, must be up to date with politics, and always portray a positive mindset/attitude.
Council members are elected by other members of their respective regions. There are 8,000 councilors total in Wales and 22 councils called unitary authorities. Councilors are tasked with representing and defining their local geographical area and run for a term of four years. Typically, councilors elect all of their councilors at the same time.
Members of Parliament (or MPs) are tasked with the obligation to bring up problems and issues from a wide range of areas in the UK. They can also propose new laws that go through the House of Commons. MPs are elected through either a by-election or a general election. MPs work in the House of Commons, Parliament, and at the constituencies that elect them and other political parties.
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