The Geographical Tectonic Hazards in El Nino and California

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Geography is earth’s natural environments including living and nonliving elements also the process of how they get their shape. Also, it’s the studies with environments and within landscapes including the atmosphere and living ecosystems. It has to do a lot with climate change it has been the most overriding focus on earths system. We see an increase in global temperatures, an increase in air and ocean temperatures this is a problem because it could affect the whole planet and equator.

The way that geography allows people to use maps in order to predict possible hazardous regions is by first diving earth into regions. Most of these will share a common region it could be landforms all the way up to people. You usually want to look for spatial significance which is place or regions it’s the location and characteristics that is in that specific location, basically why what is happening is happening there. Patterns and trends basically seeing what is happening and seeing if that has happened before, if anything is similar from other times like the patterns, seeing if it was in a particular setting. Interrelationships is between natural and human environments with that being said it’s the understanding of how system is analyzing what impact one system would have on the other, Geographic perspective which is everything that you analyze in order to realize what is wrong and what kind of decisions you’re going to make, as well as the ability to make judgments on these perspectives.

There are many different types of maps cylindrical projection which is perspective map projection it’s the equator basically where it stores the light source. This cylinder is then cut up to made it a flat map. Planar projection are basically 3D projections and what they do is construct linear mapping spaces. Conic projection which is normally a sphere and then it rolls out to a plat surface. Oval protection is a large map that is commonly known and use it offers all of the globe. These maps are used for mountains, valley’s, transportation, population and development patterns. The public uses these maps for similar stuff like the oval protection. A common example is the highway map.
When it comes to weather related hazards dealing with either tornados, hurricanes, or polar front we have a El Nino hurricane on page 145 from Geosystems. The way that this is a hazardous and how it affects people is by first starting off with a strong current by a frictional drag of winds also it’s the temperature and amount of salt that causes tides. Most of these occur off the Pacific coasts of North America and South America and some parts of Africa.

When it comes to El Nino this hurricane can cause oscillate meaning it can swig and go back and forth really fast, this causes the air pressure to go up. We typically see El Nino in South America and there are a lot of fishermen in that region and who have observed many warnings for these temperatures. In the 1997 hurricane was so strong that the hurricane caused wind to shear it then made the water temperatures drop. This hurricane started at 39 mph and it then it actually became a hurricane when it reached 74 mph. When the water increased then the strong high levels of wind came out. This was known to be the most severe El Nino that they had on record. When it got to this was when people started to gather all their belongs as well as trying to get flashing lights and other supplies. This hurricane happened June 1, 1997 in the Pacific Ocean as well as the areas around it and was known to be the second most intense hurricane that there had been. There were hundredths of deaths as well as millions of dollars in damage.

Another hurricane that is well known is La Nina this hurricane is known to start when the Eastern Pacific cools down by 0.4 Celsius. La Nina is less strong than El Nino. We barely see this hurricane come around its not as consistent as El Nino. When we see these two on a map on page 147 on Geosystems side by side EL Nino can do more damaging because it has more areas of being cool, wet, and warm.

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When it comes to tectonic hazards it deals with explosive volcanos or effluent volcanos it all starts with the Earth’s Core and Mantle. Its divided into two cores the inner and outer. The inner core is a solid iron that is were the melting temperature is at, the outer core is molten metallic iron. The upwelling magma forms active volcanos along the Pacific Rim. Most volcanic activity is coming from plate boundaries which is the tectonic plates of many regions. When the magma rises that’s when it produces a hot spot. Some of these hot spots can be found in lower mantle and even in above mantle. On page 338 from Geosystems we have a map of the whole world with earthquakes and volcanic activity as well as tectonic plates. We can see that there is a lot of subduction zones followed by many volcanos. The most recent explosive volcano is Kilauea its one of the worlds most active volcanos it destroyed many homes and 2,000 people had to evacuate the area. When the volcano plumed out ash 30,000 feet up into the air that was when they put out the red alert for everyone. This happened on May 3, 2018 in Hawaii, United States.

When it comes to erosional hazards it could be a mass movement like landslides, mudflow, river flood, tsunami and even coastal retreat. When it’s a mud flow according to chapter 13 on page 402 it is created by water and finer materials that are usually smaller than sand. We also have a debris flow which is a mixture of water and sediment it also brings gravels and other types of rocks. With debris flow you get a loosely consolidated oppose to a mudflow you get slide of mud. The way that a mudflow is created is by heavy rainfall and high levels of water even a flood can occur this. With debris its when soil and rocks are pushed down and also get water because then it turns into thick material left behind on the floors. On March 31, 2017 in Southern Colombia there was a debris flow which killed hundredths of people also not find the left over remains of 76 people. This was caused by smaller landslides. We have seen an increase in mudflows and debris flows since climate change.

When it comes to landscapes on chapter 15 page 455 in Geosystems landscapes happen due to weather it plays a very important role. When it comes to chemical weather which is the reason why rocks were made or any other materials because it was made from a chemical reaction like how rocks are made from lava. It mainly relies on water and the presence of plant species. Many of these occur in deserts that’s where the sand dunes are. A landscape is made up from lakes, hills, streams or mountains. A landscape can be dangerous because once the water it has on the inside reaches to the outside it becomes an impermeable layer and once the wind hits it goes everywhere and could kill many people.

When it comes to river floods they are made up from streams. According to chapter 14 on page 410 from Geosystems every it’s a drainage basin which is an area where water can be collected through any steam of water. The way that a river flood can occur is through heavy rainfall typically on steep land then from there it increases into a faster pace and gets fuller. If the river is very big then most of its water will now go off steam and most of it will go into the city. Floods have more of a consequence for communities and people because at least 4 million of people do not know how to swim so for some people it’s a survival for them trying to stay above water.

Tsunami is a high sea wave that is cause by a huge single amount of force like an earthquake. It has to do a lot with elevation, tectonic activity and glaciation. Long term climate change has to do with this to because of the glaciers ice it can cause a rise in sea level. According to chapter 16 on page 475 on December 26, 2004 there was a tsunami first an earthquake struck and then the tectonic plates moved triggering the tsunami to a magnitude of 9.1-9.3. Once it is in that level it is considered Mercalli intensity. It killed 227,000 people it was reported that this was the tsunami that killed the most people as well as the deadliest natural disaster to be recorded.

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