Syrian Refugee Crisis: Global Impact and Sustainable Solutions

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Abstract

Ever since the World War II the Syrian civil war dated March 15, 2011 has been recorded to be the largest humanitarian crisis. It has affected hundreds of people, nations and set back the standard of living by decades. It created the largest refugee crisis and displaced millions of Syrians. It has had a severe impact on the economies of a number of countries and created major social and political disputes around the world. The war has proved to be a challenge to the region creating economic and political pressure resulting in the long term solutions to support the region. Agencies like the UNHRC work towards the betterment of the Syrian refugees to improve their life. World Bank provided funding and development solutions for the Syrian Refugee Crisis.

The main motive is to understand the tremendous impact the crisis has had on various countries, especially on Turkey. Turkey has the largest population of refugees and the country has undergone a series of changes due to the same. Countries like Lebanon are supposedly going through an existential crisis because of the number of refugees residing in their country. Critical questions in relation to the impact of refugee influx need to be addressed as soon as possible. Sustainable solutions like repatriation and allowing refugees to take up nationality in a new country need to be considered seriously. Many options like building a community for them need to be taken into question. These options will make sure that they have a home and life wherever they go.

Background On The Syrian Humanitarian Crisis

Syria is situated in Western Asia and forms a part of the Middle East. It is situated on the silk route and has been historically rich in its cultural heritage. Syria was developing economically and was one of the lower- middle-income countries. However in March 2011 protests arose in Syria when a young boy was killed for painting anti-Government slogans on a wall of a school. The President Bashar Al- Assad was ruling over the people in a harsh and cruel manner having complete control over the people living in Syria. This led to a strong resentment among the people for its Government. Due to the killing of the young boy many took to the streets to revolt against the Government’s action. The Government led by the President Bashar Al- Assad open fired on the large number of protesters who took to the streets for the resignation of the President Bashar Al- Assad. A number of people were killed by the Government which intensified the protests.

The violence increased rapidly and the war between the revolutionary forces and government worsened. There was havoc created in the country which gave rise to a civil war. There were a number of reasons which gave rise to this civil war like political repression, discredited ideology, uneven economy, draught, population surge, corruption, social media, state violence and minority rule. This war further spread to the capital city and then to the whole of Syria. It resulted in the death of several people. This was recorded to be the worst humanitarian crisis since the Second World War that killed millions of innocent people and forced a large number of its people out of their own country.

Another major issue that contributed to the war was the division of the Muslim dominated country. The president’s family, the military, few aristocrats belonging to the Alawite sect, formed a minority in a Sunni dominated country. The Sunni Muslims who were in the opposition formed more than 75% of the country. This led to the formation of Muslim Jihadists terror groups like the Al Qaeda contributing to the war, killing thousands and creating destruction all over Syria. This war gradually became more of an ethical division war in Syria and spread terror all across the globe. There was indiscriminate killing, public executions, amputations of hundreds refusing to abide by the rules and torturing of civilians forcing them to flee from country. The terror groups have proved to be the biggest threat to the world as they have been using chemical weapons of mass destruction repeatedly. Since then millions of people fled from Syria to neighboring countries like Turkey, Jordon, Lebanon and Europe and majorly women and children. Humanitarian crisis was so grave that approximately 70% of the population did not have access to basic necessities like food, water, shelter which forced helpless Syrians to abandon their homes and seek refuge in neighboring countries.

Impact Of The Syrian Crisis On The Refugees

During the war in Syria millions of people died. They were killed, murdered, tortured, and beheaded. There were insufficient medical facilities, education facilities and the homes of several were destroyed which left several people homeless. The war forced homeless Syrians to take shelter in other neighboring countries like Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey in search for a safer place, which created socio economic instability, environment concern, and a huge impact on the labor market in those countries. For the initial two years during the war the open border policy maintained by the Government of the host countries made it easier for the Syrians to settle in those host countries. An agency set up by the Government of Turkey administered the immigrants and passed a law that provided a protection status which was temporary for the refugees, this made the refugees eligible for social benefits like free education and healthcare facilities in Turkey.[footnoteRef:4]

However the refugees faced problems like unemployment, increased property, lack of healthcare facilities, lack of amenities and basic necessities. The schools in the host countries were overcrowded. While some Syrians could not afford school fees, others faced difficulty with the curriculum due to language differences. Real estate prices and rent rates were raised drastically due to the soaring demand for accommodation and the Syrians were unable to afford pay for the same. Health care facilities were not adequate for all, there was an outbreak of diseases and infections and host countries were not well equipped to prevent and treat epidemics.

The Syrian refugees were increasing in number every day. Prices of basic commodities were increasing due to the growing demand. Syrian women were forced to get married to the men in host countries in need of money and agreed for much lesser dowry than the local women due to the economic hardships faced by them. This made the men in host countries prefer Syrian women as compared to the local women due to the less dowry demand. The most vulnerable groups were the women and children who were exposed to domestic violence, sexual harassment, child labor, early and forced marriages. Due to loss of livelihoods and opportunities to earn income, children were forced to discontinue their education and take up odd jobs or get married at a tender age.

The Syrians were forced to move out of their country which created not only education or job related difficulties but also a number of mental illnesses like post traumatic stress disorders due to the horrors they had witnessed or experienced in their home country. Several were killed by the military in Syria, families were broken apart, children became orphans and many lost their loved ones which created a situation of helplessness and mental agony for the refugees. They also had to adjust to different cultures and faced linguistic barriers. Hence the Syrian crisis has displaced thousands and created physical and mental pain to all the refugees.

Global Impact Of The Refugees On Host Countries

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Serious impacts of the exile crisis have been seen and felt by all. The countries within which the refugees prefer to request shelter in, have undergone an incredible amendment ever since the inflow. The UN diplomatist for Refugees (UNHCR) states that the largest variety of exile population is in a number of the world’s poorest countries. Countries having a significant crisis feel the serious burden of the exile population. The matter that arose was that the exile population was such a lot that it absolutely was exhausting. The presence of refugees may be felt a lot on an already strained economy. Many times, refugees threaten the progress of a selected country and therefore the effects keep long once they’ve moved out. Turkey holds the most important exile population within the world at the instant. The primary cluster of Syrian refugees entered in 2011. Turkish leaders felt that this could be a brief affair and that they would move out soon. By the top of the year there were 8000 refugees and by 2012 there were 100,000 of Syrian refugees. Even with Turkey’s constant effort to regulate exile inflow, there was an attack that injured many Turkish individuals.

Turkey honored the pledge of the Geneva Principle. They provided humanitarian aid to the refugees before they got inundated with an oversized variety of Syrians. As per the survey analysis conducted by the globe Food programme in 2017, economic problems appear to be the main point of distinction between communities. The International Crisis cluster reported that the native population felt that the inflow of the Syrian refugees has created a tangle for them. They felt that hosting the refugees to such an oversized extent has created issues for them. At that point, the price of living rose as a result of the inflow. The economy was debilitating as they funded the keep of the refugees. Since 2011, Turkey’s rate of inflation has been on a rise.

The registered population in places like Jordon and Lebanon have remained stable at the quantity it initially was. Border policies in each of the countries have ensured this. Unlike other countries, Turkey doesn’t outline refugees as “guests”. However, there’s no grant for a protracted term residence within the country. The host countries have provided help to the refugees however none of the countries has allowed the refugees to start a proper livelihood in their country. This can be likely the rationale why there’s a negative impact of the exile inflow on the economy of the country. From the instant Syrian refugees arrive in their host countries, they use the food, water and services. There’s an increased demand of natural resources, education and varied different facilities. The flow of demand and provide gets mechanically altered during this case. Since, refugees don’t seem to be allowed to reside or work, there’s excessive usage on their half with none major contribution. No government with an occasional financial gain and a strained economy would be able to catch up on the resources used by the refugees. The economic impact of the exile inflow might not continuously be negative however thanks to the shortage of contribution, there’s a clear strain which will be seen.

Sustainable Solutions And Help

The 2030 Agenda was adopted by the UN within the year 2015. It consists of 17 Sustainable developmental goals and 169 targets. Paragraph four pledges “that nobody will be left behind and Goals and targets will be met for all nations and peoples and all segments of society.” With all the frameworks and policies, there may be reduction in economic condition, higher facilities and a far better life for refugees. UNHRC focuses majorly on this agenda as this can be the sole resolution to assist displaced individuals around the globe.

Data collection must be looked into and the United Nations should have information about the stateless people. For this, active cooperation of regional governments is required. Governments of various states need to actively work with the UNHRC to provide the refugees with everything they need. The regional representatives should make themselves well aware of the agenda and must work towards it. Refugees are forcibly displaced from their place of living. It is important to take their needs into consideration while planning any national development.

International organizations should raise awareness to combat issues of psychological state and therefore the life that an exile leads. These organizations can set out plans and policies on a regional level to ensure the safety of the refugees. The SDG emphasizes on the psychological state of the exile girls. These mental disorders can’t just be cured by treatment. Help, identity and settlement is what they need. One of the important targets is to provide for legal identity to the displaced. This is pivotal as with a legal identity, refugees will be able to start a new life for themselves in whichever part of the world they are in. Legal identity will allow them to work for a living.

This will allow them to blend with the local population. In some countries, possession of a national identity card means that you are a national. Even if a said person is entitled to get protection under a law but does not have the valid proof, they would be excluded from getting any help or benefits from the government. Giving legal identity is extremely essential as the refugees have some identification and can be located by lost or separated family members. Health and non-health sectors can partner and facilitate support for these individuals and scale back the burden of violence and discrimination that they face. Post-displacement effects on psychological state have to be compelled to be self-addressed. The UN exile Convention must shield the spiritual and religious identity of the displaced individuals too. Transfer services and policies have to be compelled to be self-addressed at the earliest as this can be the smallest amount that the globe offers for his or her loss.

Conclusion

The Syrian war started in the year of 2011. It was a fight between the President Bashar Al-Assad, his security forces and the pro-democracy opposition groups. This uprising spread across the country resulted in a civil war which created a huge negative impact on the country of Syria and its people. There was incessant bombing and killing across the countries which forced its people to take shelter in its neighboring host countries. The Syrian war was supposed to be an ideological step for its region but proved to have a devastating effect all over the World. The inability to take this entire situation in control by the Government gave rise to terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda and Hamas.

This led to the lapse of the entire socio economic structure of the region as well as violation of human rights of all its people. The entire world on a united front should take a stand for the improvement of the situation in Syria. As long as the entire international community through different organizations does not come up with a sustainable solution for resolving the circumstances in Syria, the war and its humanitarian crisis can have a huge negative impact on the world and its economy as well as its safety. Continuous efforts have been made by different international organizations to create awareness and help the war stricken country and its people. Countries should extend their support to the Syrian Refugees in form of donations or spreading awareness about their situation or creating jobs and employment opportunities, providing financial support, setting up emergency employment centers etc. Certain program like skill development programs, cultural and social integration programs should also be organized to restore the loss sense of belonging among the displaced Syrians.

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