Solving The Issue Of Teenage Pregnancy And Prevention

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Teenage pregnancy is a major issue in today’s society. Whereas teenage pregnancy rates have been escalating in South East Asian countries since 1990 up until 2015, there are still risks that make teenage pregnancy challenging. Most difficulties would include higher blood pressure, anemia (low iron levels), low birth weight, deformities in their bodies, higher chance of Down Syndrome and premature childbearing. Pre-teens and teens ranging from ages 13-18 are already bearing babies. They surely still don’t know that their age and stage in growth will have a great impact on the infant. Being a teen mom will not only affect their lives, it will also affect the infant.

Teenage pregnancy classifies women under the age of twenty. Teen moms usually come from poor or low income families. Lack of sex education and reckless sexual intercourse can also result to unplanned teenage pregnancy. Early childbearing without a fully developed maturity can lead to emotional and mental stagnation. Teen moms not only have to worry about the pressure of dealing with an infant but also the strain of going back to school and source of income. Teen mothers should seek support from their parents or from the father of the infant so that needed prenatal care can be offered.

Being a teenage mother is filled with a lot of challenges. These challenges can affect their health issues due to stress. Increased of mental health problems comes from different levels of stress that they feel when they became a teenage mother. They also experience a kind of depression called “postpartum depression”, it is a serious mental heath problem that mothers feel after they gave birth. The reasons why they feel this deep depression is when they have a history of depression in their family, felt a serious kind of stress during pregnancy and experienced a medical issues while they are pregnant or after they gave birth. Lack of support in the family can also be the reason why teenage mothers experienced a serious mental health issues. Postpartum depression affects the mental, physical and behavioural changes of a woman after a child birth. Teenage mothers may also feel different types of mood which are not normal after a child birth like sad, anxious, hopeless and helpless. While caring their babies, teenage mothers neglect their physical health because their attention is more focused on their babies and not in themselves anymore. The care and effort they are giving to themselves are not enough for them to be physically healthy. They do not have time to know and to access about healthy eating. This leads to poor physical health of teenage mothers. They experience different levels of stress, so that leads to teenage mothers to have a suicidal thoughts or ideation. The good thing about these health problems that teenage mothers face is that it can be cured and treated with proper medication and good counselling.

Сons of Teenage Pregnancy

Pregnancy on such young age has been pondered to be risky than pregnancy in an adult, by reason of the biological immaturity of a teenager. The premature babies and low birthweight is the primarily disadvantages of it that increase the risk of a number of pregnancy complications.

According to the research of Petra Otterblad Olausson, Sven Cnttinguis and Bengt Hanglund that some reports, but not all also indicate raised danger of instantly before and after birth and infant death rates in relation to low maternal age.

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The late fetal death was clarified to be as a stillbirth happening at 28 gestational weeks, where the fetus is now developing inside the womb. Neonatal death was defined as death transpiring during the first 27 completed days of life wherein the human infant was born in the 4 weeks outside the womb. And postneonatal death was clarified as death from day 28 through day 364 of life. Preterm births were rated into very preterm birth wherein it is less than and equal to 32 completed gestational weeks and moderately preterm birth with 33 to 36 weeks.

The studies of the said researcher stated that in the period of 1973-1989 the late fetal and infant death rates consistently enlarged with decreasing maternal age and were always highest among the infants born to mothers with 13-15 years of age.

Furthermore, it also includes the chances of having lower levels of emotional support and cognitive stimulation, be unemployed or underemployed as a young adult. The young parent can affect her studies and have a lower school achievement and be a drop out in high school. And the possible of higher risk of cephalopelvic disproportion because the baby’s head is wider than the pelvic opening.

Statistics

According to the article by Dom Galeon from manila bulletin entitled “The Pregnant Teen: A Growing Problem?” is about the increasing rate of early pregnancy. From what DOH said base from the latest survey of “National Demographic and Health Survey” that at 9% rate are women that ages between 15-19 have been begun on bearing a child. If we’re going to compare it from 1990 until 2015 the difference of the rate is huge because from 6.5- 4.7. In Southeast Asian countries, the Philippines have a high rate of early pregnancy from the usual rate. From World Health Organization 4.5% of Asian girls are pregnant with their first child. While here in Philippines teenagers that had a live birth is at 7%. This growing problem of the country is because of the continuous increasing rate of early teenage pregnancy. The factor that they see is because of lack on education about teenage pregnancy and also they think that it is because of poverty in our country. Based on the survey in the year 2017, the teenager who got pregnant that just finished primary education is about 26.2 percent, while in college is 4 percent. The following province or region in the Philippines has a high rate of teenage pregnancy 15.9 percent is on Davao which is the highest, and 11.8 percent is from the SOCCSKSARGEN Region. This reflects on why many teenagers don’t finish their education. Even though private institutions and non-government agencies are doing everything to prevent having a high rate of teenage pregnancy they can’t avoid it.

Teenagers must know their sexual limitations but since a lot of teenagers can be sexually intimate with other people, there are various contraceptive techniques that can help in preventing teenage pregnancy like using birth control such as pill that has many kinds and IUD or using barrier like condoms. Practicing safe sex helps not only in preventing pregnancy but it also helps in reducing the risk of getting sexually transmitted diseases or infections. But it is a must that teenagers know how to do and use these which is why it is very much important that sex education is taught to every teenager. It can also help that teenagers know how to avoid drinking too much and doing drugs as getting wasted can help make decisions that can increase the risk of having various infections to having unwanted or teenage pregnancy. Other than that, there is also the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus wherein a guy withdraws his private part from a girl’s vagina prior to orgasm to stop the sperm from entering the vagina but this method is not always successful and the risk of getting pregnant is higher here than in practicing safe sex. Another method is the calendar method wherein the female teenager can possibly know when she is or isn’t fertile so that she knows the days where there’s a high possibility of getting pregnant, this is done by keeping track of the days of the menstrual cycle. Although there are many different ways to prevent a teenage pregnancy, the only one that is absolutely effective is abstaining from sex until they are married.

RH Law Reproductive Health Law Act of 2012, also known as Republic Act of 10354. RH Law that guarantees the universal access methods on fertility control, contraception, sexual education and lastly maternal care. This is the law that family planning devices are needed just like IUDs, condoms, and birth control pills. Family planning is a way that people practicing before they going to becoming a couple or officially married. Family and other couples or individuals are anticipating to attain their number of children, timing and spacing of their births. Also family planning can prevent the HIV or AIDS because they can provide some pills or condoms to lower the risk of getting HIV or AIDS. It can prevent the fast growing of the population. By doing some family planning, it can help to reduce the adolescent pregnancy because it can help one of the member to avoid sex interactions and avoid living the school at early age. One of the best reason why family planning is needed, because family panning can prevent abortion and save the life of the child. Also this is an act providing a comprehensive policy on Reproductive Health, Responsible Parenthood and development and population and other purpose. This law was made for preventing our country to become over populated. Back in 1967 the Reproductive Health proposed by the other 12 countries including the Philippines. It started also in 1967 by shouldering 80% is the total of family planning commodities. The RH law was delayed implementation by the Supreme Court because they said that it is not constitutional and struck down in eight provisions.

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