Psychological Analysis of the Doping Usage Attitudes in Sports

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Applied Sport Psychology

Coleman Griffith is believed to have pioneered the application of psychology within sports where emphasis was placed on movement, behaviour and presentation (Portenga, Aoyagi, Balague, Cohen, & Harmison, 2018). Applied sport psychology may be defined as recognition and comprehension of psychological generalisations and methods relevant to sport and exercise, to intensify actions and advancements of athletes and physically active members by educating those who play a direct and indirect role towards the contestants (Williams & Krane, 2015). This is directed towards professional assistance within the related field and attention is largely placed on preparation, teamwork, communication abilities, in hand with neighbouring factors, determining a positive outcome. Applied Sport Psychology

It highlights aspects of cognition, emotion, enjoyment and motivation etc. including diagnoses and prevention of barriers between triumph and failure surrounding the domain (Portenga, Aoyagi, Balague, Cohen, & Harmison, 2018). Different types of sports psychology issues have been reported such as anxiety, low-elf-esteem, depression and substance abuse etc. A range of sports psychology issues are given by the examination authority to delineate and define them employing existing literature. To address the demands of one the following concerns ‒ doping and sports, psychopathology in competitive athletes, or chocking under pressure ‒ I have selected ‘doping and sports’ for elaboration as it is very a common practice being used by athletes in the modern sporting world.

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Doping and Sports

Doping involves the usage of a foreign substance in an abnormal quantity with the motive of impacting the outcome of performance. This may be done through gene doping (injecting the muscle to increase its muscle mass), blood doping (increase in the density of erythrocytes to improve endurance) or drug doping, by making use of injections or pills. Studies suggest that doping has become widespread in popular sports founding its way into less recognised ones. Doping is used to enhance performance, supply the increased amounts of nutrients that the body requires and manage the psychological pressure that an athlete might feel before partaking in an event (Taware & Bansode, 2016).

According to Tawade and Bansode (2016) the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) focuses on anti-doping rules and regulations that are governed around the globe and the undertakings allow for the movement of doping-free sports. Athletes that resort to recreational drugs fail to master concepts of proper nutrition, regular exercise and intrapersonal drive which ultimately leads to a successful completion of the given sport (Bowers & Paternoster, 2017). The first case of drug overdose in sporting was recorded in 1886, where Linton Redrenn died during a cycling competition. Thereafter, a number of scandals have played out, which gained large media coverage, where popular athletes were banned or stripped of their titles when performance-enhancing drugs were found within their system (Taware & Bansode, 2016). Serious percussions and penalties are evident should laws and standards that govern sports be trespassed (Bowers & Paternoster, 2017). Concentration is now placed on primary prevention that includes educating minors in schools and the community pertaining to the ethical and moral stance of substance abuse (Blank, et al. , 2015).

As parents play a major role in the behavioural outcome of a child therefore, future endeavours will include parental campaigns to provide information on doping and health (Blank, et al. , 2015). As a secondary prevention method, athletes are requested to provide urine samples which will be divided in two separate containers for examinations, where the second container is used to confirm of doping (Bowers & Paternoster, 2017; Tawade & Bansode 2016). Although punishment may be used as a form to reduce doping instances in the future by athletes, Bowers and Paternoster (2017) argue that a multidisciplinary approach to the matter may be more beneficial e. g. honour and recognition for those athletes who have never doped or shaming, which causes the athlete to regret the decision of doping, this should be done by the athlete’s community where he or she gained the recognition and respect, as it will have a greater impact on the individual. Once the reputation of the party involved has been put on the line, a sense of ethical and moral evaluation is re-established as well as consideration for fellow competitors is harnessed in fair-play (Bowers & Paternoster, 2017).

Numerous reasons surround the usage of illegal drugs in sports, that is, to enhance stamina, increase momentum and provide quality performance. To eliminate or diminish the role of illegal drugs in sports, the athlete must resort to healthy lifestyle changes in the context of ecological systems, with the assistance of professionals working in the field i. e. positive relations, concentration, motivation and so forth. Although further research is required to link parental attitudes to children’s choices, parents play an effective role in educating youngsters to counter the urges of doping thus, encouraging fair play.

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