Protection of Wild Life and Nature from Water Pollution

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Freshwater on earth is only two point five percent of the total water when seventy percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water. Around seventy percent of industrial waste is dumped into the water. Eighty percent of the water pollution is caused due to domestic sewage. More than six billion pounds of garbage, mainly plastic end up in the oceans every year(Eleftherios par. 1). There is a worldwide epidemic that many people don’t think about or consider, water pollution. Today, water pollution has assumed alarming proportions. It has emerged as one of the most serious environmental threats in India (Snyder par. 1-8). Both domestic and industrial reasons are contributing to this problem. Excessive use of soap, soda, bleaching powder, detergent or acids at home and chemicals in the industries are primarily responsible for water pollution. Urban sewage and industrial waste flow into water sources without treatment. Despite all efforts of the Government in cities and towns, only ten percent of the total wastewater is treated and the rest of polluted material directly flows into ponds, rivers, and ocean. Pollution of our water reserves if left untreated will affect many aspects of the survival of all species that reside on this planet. Water pollution can also lead to a possible diminishment of our ecosystem.

Affected water can even destroy some means we have of collecting energy and one of our most valuable resources. These detrimental and hazardous contaminants can be reversed, however. This paper will provide an idea of how harmful this byproduct can be, it will also inform on how to prevent this issue. Today, water pollution has assumed alarming proportions. It has emerged as one of the most serious environmental threats in India(Samudranil par 1 – 5). Both domestic and industrial reasons are contributing to this problem. Excessive use of soap, soda, bleaching powder, detergent or acids at home and chemicals in the industries are primarily responsible for water pollution. Urban sewage and industrial waste flow into water sources without treatment. Despite all efforts of the Government in cities and towns, only a percent of the total wastewater is treated and the rest of polluted material directly flows into ponds, rivers, and ocean. Pollution of our water reserves if left untreated will affect many aspects of the survival of all species that reside on this planet. Water pollution can also lead to a possible diminishment of our ecosystem(GreenTumble Waste Dumping par. 1, 5). Affected water can even destroy some means we have of collecting energy and one of our most valuable resources. These detrimental and hazardous contaminants can be reversed, however. This paper will provide an idea of how harmful this byproduct can be it will also inform on how to prevent this issue.

Water pollution is “The contamination of water bodies”. If the contaminant gets into our vegetation it can lead to the diminishment of our ecosystems by killing off the vegetation. Water pollutants alter the overall chemistry of the water, causing changes in acidity, conductivity, and temperature affecting the vegetation. Also, heavy rain carries up dirt and silt and deposits them into the water. If the dirt and silt settle in the water body, then these sediments prevent sunlight from reaching aquatic plants. If the sun can’t reach the plants, they die.

Another dangerous effect of pollution is damage to our food chain. When harmful toxins are present in water they have transferred too higher-level organisms through the food. Bioaccumulation occurs when an animal eats another animal or organism and retains the pollutants that were inside its meal. Biologists often find higher levels of toxins in bigger fish that have long life spans, because those fish eat many smaller ones and retain the metals they contained. This results in high levels of toxins, such as mercury, in the bigger fish. Swordfish and king mackerel are big fish that display particularly high mercury levels, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mercury causes kidney damage in mammals and is a carcinogen. When birds and mammals eat the polluted aquatic life, the contaminants spread throughout the food chain.

Weather and environments are also affected by the build-in pollution. Acid rain is caused by chemical reactions with compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air. Acid rain can kill fish and other animals by turning the lakes acidic. Heavy metals like lead, mercury, aluminum, and magnesium are present in water sources. If these metals are present in the sediment, they reach the food chain through plants and aquatic animals. Polluted water also can carry disease or can spread infectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera. Drinking water can be a source of exposure to chemicals caused by nutrient pollution. Drinking, accidentally swallowing or swimming in water affected by harmful algal bloom can cause serious health problems including Rashes. Stomach or liver illness. Virtually all water pollutants are hazardous to humans as well as lesser species; sodium is implicated in cardiovascular disease, nitrates in blood disorders.

Water pollution is “The contamination of water bodies”. If the contaminant gets into our vegetation it can lead to the diminishment of our ecosystems by killing off the vegetation. Water pollutants alter the overall chemistry of the water, causing changes in acidity, conductivity, and temperature affecting the vegetation. Also, heavy rain carries up dirt and silt and deposits them into the water. If the dirt and silt settle in the water body, then these sediments prevent sunlight from reaching aquatic plants. If the sun can’t reach the plants, they perish.

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Another big effect of pollution is our agricultural and outdoor recreation. “Some farmers along both the Animas River and the San Juan River, into which the Animas flows, have needed to stop using river water for crops and livestock, at least temporarily”, according too Eiswerth. When harmful toxins are present in water they have transferred too higher-level organisms through the food chain. Bioaccumulation occurs when an animal eats another animal or organism and retains the pollutants that were inside its meal. Biologists often find higher levels of toxins in bigger fish that have long life spans, because those fish eat many smaller ones and retain the metals they contained. This results in high levels of toxins, such as mercury, in the bigger fish. Swordfish and king mackerel are big fish that display particularly high mercury levels, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mercury causes kidney damage in mammals and is a carcinogen. When birds and mammals eat the polluted aquatic life, the contaminants spread throughout the food chain. Water pollutants also affect the weather and environment. Acid rain is caused by chemical reactions with compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air. Acid rain can kill fish and other animals by turning the lakes acidic. Heavy metals like lead, mercury, aluminum, and magnesium are present in water sources. If these metals are present in the sediment, they reach the food chain through plants and aquatic animals. Polluted water also can carry disease or can spread infectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera. Drinking water can be a source of exposure to chemicals caused by nutrient pollution. Drinking, accidentally swallowing or swimming in water affected by harmful algal bloom can cause serious health problems including Rashes. Stomach or liver illness. Virtually all water pollutants are hazardous to humans as well as lesser species; sodium is implicated in cardiovascular disease, nitrates in blood disorders.

Ways we can help are pollution not pouring fats from cooking, or any other type of fat, oil or grease down the sink, not disposing household chemicals or cleaning agents down the sink or toilet. Anytime there are massive numbers of people conglomerated in one dense area, a physical disturbance of the land follows. The building of new roads, houses, and industries affect the cleanliness of the water through the use of detergents, chemicals, and exhaust emissions. When it rains, these chemicals are washed into the rivers and streams, and eventually into the drinking water supply. Try drinking untreated water nowadays and your body will immediately react to it. You will get a stomach ache at the least. Persistent pollutants remain active in the water for years. They tend to be the ones that bioaccumulate the most. These pollutants include certain pesticides, heavy metals, and pharmaceuticals. Water-borne diseases account for the deaths of 3,575,000 people a year! That’s equivalent to a jumbo jet crashing every hour, and the majority of these are children. Most tissues, wrappers, dust cloths, and other paper goods should be properly thrown away, so stop using the toilet as a trash bin. Minimize the use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. Do not dispose of these chemicals, motor oil, or other automotive fluids into the sanitary sewer or storm sewer systems. Both of them end at the river.

Water pollutants don’t always come from the same source, if it came from one pipe or ship it would be point pollution, Oil spills can cause serious damage to fisheries and mariculture resources through physical contamination, toxic effects on stock and by disrupting business activities. The nature and extent of the impact on seafood production depend on the characteristics of the spilled oil, the circumstances of the incident and the type of fishing activity or business affected. In some cases, effective protective measures and clean-up can prevent or minimize damage. groundwater pollution is in the ground itself, but the main one is wastewater pollution. Wastewater pollution is animal and human waste, so it needs to be broken down, and we generally do that using bacteria. As the bacteria break down the waste they require oxygen, and we can measure how polluted that wastewater is by looking at the biochemical oxygen demand. When oxygen is taken out of ecosystems it can create dead zones which are seen a lot on our coast, yet as we reach new technological highs-new ways to reduce and or reversing water pollution in our ecosystem are being created.

Technology is always improving, one way is by more energy-efficient products. Sometimes because they’re designed with environmental improvement in mind. Usually, however, it is simply the result of using newer and better materials and components, so they can be used in more things, like household, everyday products. Some technologies can help reduce others to reduce pollution. Examples of this would be how meters and sensors can provide improved control, which reduces waste and defects. Centrifuges can reduce the number of solids in wastewater. Some technologies are designed specifically for protecting the environment while improving business performance. Recycling technologies can help recover valuable materials from waste, cutting manufacturing costs, while also prevent pollution. Examples include gene-engineered plants that do not need protection using chemical insecticides and fuel cells for generating electricity. However, it is surprisingly challenging to identify such technologies that stop pollution were usually created too simply to reduce costs and save materials.

With ways like the Clean Water Act controlling point sources of water pollution. In the last decade, federal law and policy have been strengthened several times. These impacted mostly federal farm policies, technical and financial assistance. Waters that are safe for fishing and swimming have doubled thanks to the CWA, which requires all wastewater treatment factories to obtain discharge permits under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. The NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Service) permit includes urban stormwater management control of combined sewer and sanitary and municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The permit roughly covers about sixteen wastewater treatment facilities, three thousand of those participating in the National Pretreatment Program, an effort of local, state and federal agencies.

Flooding of industrial areas or agricultural chemical storage locations can cause chemicals to move into nearby watersheds, also degrading water quality and even contaminating some residential areas. Low water levels due to drought can also contribute to deteriorated water quality. The effects of their waterborne pollution, however, range from contamination of drinking water causing drinking water quality problems to the emission of greenhouse gases, resulting in climatic change challenges. Some remediate climate change mitigation measures against water pollution can however be taken.

Research from the National Academy of Sciences says that ocean-based sources have dumped fourteen billion pounds of garbage into the ocean killing more than one million seabirds and one hundred thousand sea mammals are killed by pollution every year. Other pollutants affecting water resources(Marine pollution: Factsheet par. 1). “Over three hundred million tons of pesticides are used each year, often ending up in waterways, the majority being classified as carcinogens”, says the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Pesticides in water bodies can kill fish. “Unintentional pesticide-related fish kills occur throughout the United States. Some of these kills have been large, involving thousands of fishes, as well as frogs, turtles, mussels, water birds, and other wildlife… Protection of wildlife and water quality is possible when using pesticides.”, according to the Virginia Cooperative Extension (Davis par. 8-15) High levels of nitrogen, phosphates, and phosphorus into waterways can encourage the growth of invasive plants, again setting up a scenario of altered water quality. More disconcerting are the potential long term effects of toxins in the environment. Many contaminants are known to accumulate in plant and animal tissues. Stricterregulating of industries is needed to slow further contamination. While the EPA has identified run-off from agriculture as the biggest source of water pollution, regulations are not in place to control this industry. Meanwhile, pesticides and other pollutants continue to make their way into our waterways, increasing the risk of further damage. At some point in their life cycle, over seventy percent of terrestrial animal species are dependent upon water. Yet, despite the warnings, water pollution continues. Sewage overflows, legal or not, continue to dump bacteria, parasites, and toxic chemicals into waterways. Coastal environments continue to be imperiled by oil spills, killing wildlife and causing millions of dollars in property damage. Unless measures are taken, the very water we drink is in danger (Kazmeyer par. 1 – 6)

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