Life of Seafarers and Transition to Retirement

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In the study of Hansson, Buratti, Thorvaldsson, Johansson, and Berg (2017) entitled “Changes in Life Satisfaction in the Retirement Transition: Interaction Effects of Transition Type and Individual Resources” it proved that the impact of retirement on a well-being varies between not only in individuals, but also within individuals over time. Type of transition and individual differences in resource capability are two factors likely to influence the retirement adjustment process. Resources evaluated for their role in the transition included baseline measures of self-esteem, autonomy, social support, self-rated physical health, self-rated cognitive ability, and basic financial assets. Results from multiple group latent change score models showed that retirement transition type and individual differences in resource capability variously influenced changes in life satisfaction.

Moreover, in the study of Yeung and Zhou (2017) entitled “Planning for Retirement: Longitudinal Effect on Retirement Resources and Post-retirement Well-being” it was stated that retirement is a major life event, and a positive adjustment to retirement is essential for maintaining physical and psychological well-being in later life. Planning conducted before retiring can greatly contribute to the post retirement well-being of a person. A total of 118 Hong Kong Chinese retirees were assessed and the result of the test was favor to the prediction: retirees with more conducted preparations and preparatory activities before retiring will acquire much greater resources at the initial stage of his retired life that can contribute to positive changes in post-retirement well-being over time.

Furthermore, in the study of Anai, Rusaci, Ana (2013) entitled “Spending leisure time in retirement” the results cleared up that the participants prioritized their adjustment after retirement more than their satisfaction and spending their time on leisure and fun. The study shows that the participants who showed that they had a good adjustment after retirement tend to be less active because of lack of leisure time and satisfaction. However, for those people who ended up having difficulties with their adjusting after retirement appears to have more satisfaction and found interest where they took part in. They were more active than the ones who appeared to have good time adjusting which ends up being passive and unsatisfied.

Additionally, the results of this study showed that most of the participants end up unsatisfied with how they spend their free time. Most of them became more passive and end up watching television as hobby or as a thing to spend their time with. This issue poses a question of how the elders or the retiree use their free time, whether if they have fun with it or will they use it to fulfill any untouched agenda. Since the time for a person to spend retirement is extended the main question is how can we utilize the capabilities and potentials of the elders (retiree), and how can we guide them for the benefit of all. Since the elderly are already big “consumers” of TV, an initial answer could be found through appropriate television programming, which would promote active and healthy ageing to which we all aspire.

Meanwhile, in the study of Gulmatico et al. (2014) entitled “Factors that Influence Seafarers to Stay Longer in Maritime Navigation Services” asserted that salary, better economic life, savings, sustainment of family needs, better lifestyle, and pleasure for seeing the world for free are the top five reasons or factors that influence seafarers to stay longer onboard. Based on the overall questions it can be concluded that these are the things that influence seafarers to stay longer in maritime navigation services and the things that will depart with them when they retire.

Similarly, in the study of Mella et al. (2009) entitled “Filipino Seafarers’ Family Lifestyles and Their Related Personal Concurrence and Expectations: Implications to Maritime Education.” it was narrated that the seafarers’ families are almost alike when it comes to lifestyle. This study indicated that family of seafarers has a average lifestyle when it comes to leisure, entertainment, socio-cultural and economic pursuit..  The seafarers revealed only moderate concurrence with their families’ lifestyle. No significant differences existed among the seafarers in their perception of their families’ lifestyle and in their concurrence with their families’ lifestyle. However there is a significant difference on the expectations of seafarers among their families. High ranking officers with their wives as their allotment recipient, those holding management-level positions and those with conjugal dependents have higher expectations to the lifestyle of their families. Lifestyle had a significant positive correlation with concurrence and expectations. Likewise, concurrence and expectations significantly and positively correlated.


In a study of work-related attitudes during different stages of life at sea of Hult (2010) entitled “Swedish Seafarers and Seafaring Occupation 2010” the results have shown that the apparent appropriate age of retirement among seafarers age 55+ is 63, and that more than 33 percent of the same category would be eager to work a few years longer than they have to if have the opportunity to do so and that almost 38 percent would be willing to contribute in a band of retired seafarers as a set off to the standard rotation system. The latter are also discovered to be among those who seldom or never indicate problematic experiences on the job. Consequently, this study has shown that the seafaring occupation plays a strong role in identity creation, that general job satisfaction is high and that the job content is highly valued and significant to occupational commitment.

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Furthermore, in the study conducted by Manalo, Mercado, Paragas, Tenorio, and Dotimas (2015) entitled “The Challenges of Filipino Seafarers Onboard: Basis For Work Life Balance” the result described that the most common challenge onboard is homesickness followed by fatigue, family issues, discrimination, bad communication onboard and poor relationship in work place. Moreover, Filipino seafarers said that problems and challenges are typical in living. The challenges served as highlight to improve individual ability on how you survive and learn to handle the way of life.

Additionally, in the thesis of Bhattacharya, S (2009) entitled “The impact of the ISM code on the management of occupational health and safety in the maritime industry” it indicated that seafarers' fear of job security, low-trust work environment, and lack of organizational support were some of the main impeding factors for seafarers' participation in the management of occupational health and safety. Further analysis revealed that the organizational context and the employment relations affecting seafarers, as well as their social relations onboard ships and between the managers and seafarers in the companies studied were not conducive to a participatory style of management of occupational health and safety.

By the same token, Bauer (2008) interpreted that seafarers are bound to have a new life, new rules and new job nature when deployed onshore. Working at sea inherent difficulties for them, therefore a specialized set of labor and regulations are exclusively used on board to make sure that workers are treated fairly under the law. Land reforms and laws are not entirely applicable on sea; sailors do not usually experience regular health resources and court services. The most important thing among seafarers is to monitor their health because they are enclosed to a working platform on sea without any formal medical facilities around plus they are roaming in foreign ports which their body is not used in facing about. It is the job of the ship owners to make sure that their employees are well taken care of by imposing strict maximum working hour law and give them enough time to rest. Ship owners and ship crews suffer also suffer from the declining effectiveness of onboard training. Reductions of ship crews also burdened seafarers work but with faster turnaround on shipping jobs and more frequent crew changes, Seafarers health and safety will be ensured.

Moreover, the study of Bloor, Thomas, and Lane (2010) entitled “Health risks in the global shipping industry: An overview” they stated that the shipping industry is one of the most risky type of jobs considered in the early times, injuries and death have been feared in this particular job sector. However, as the time passes and as we reach the mid 1970s, the system was changed by technology and economy. The norms have been shifted from sub-contracting of operations to international ship management, mixed nationality crews contributed a lot in the industry. Technology ease their works giving way to an idea of reducing crew member but having extended working hours. Despite of achieving growth in the industry, the globalization of this job sector caused a deleterious effect to the health of sailors that lead to the keen monitoring of seafarer’s health and safety to cope up with the working practices of different industries.

Meanwhile, in the study of Avaceña et al. (2017) entitled “Causes, Perceived Effects, and Coping Strategies Towards Accidents Onboard by Experienced Seafarers” the result showed that the themes for the causes of accidents onboard were: human error and rough weather. Those causes pave way to a lot of health related issues onboard: Moreover the most common coping strategies employed by respondents were: positive reframing, acceptance, and venting. This study shows that seafarers must be positive, cautious and resilient in order to overcome any incidents or accidents with a smile on their faces and normal lives they can enjoy with.

Recreational Activities

In the systematic review of Barnett, Sluijs, and Ogilvie (2012) it was found out that exercise and leisure-time physical activity increases after the transition to retirement, but whether and how physical activity revolutionize remains unclear and needs further research. People who retire from inferior or blue-collar occupations come into sight to be predominantly susceptible to low levels of physical activity in retirement.

In addition, the study of Nimrod (2003) entitled “Retirees' Leisure: Activities, Benefits, and their Contribution to Life Satisfaction” the results defined that there are 13 factors of leisure activities and five factors of leisure benefits, every part of which are interconnected. Six of the activity aspects contribute radically to retirees' life enjoyment. The only leisure profit that points out a noteworthy influence on life fulfillment is essentiality. The results of this study support and clarify the Activity Theory, and enhance understanding of the role of leisure in achieving a high level of life satisfaction, which is equivalent to a successful adaptation to retirement.

Similarly, in the study of Alorro et al. (2017) entitled “Recreational Activities of Seafarers Onboard Ship to Overcome Homesickness” it was analyzed that one of the most common activities practiced by seafarers are barbecue parties which promotes friendship, trust, and respect among them. Additionally, listening to music and videoke relieves their stress and ease their anxieties. It was found out that doing the latter can help reduce depressive stressors and helps promote social interaction between people. Furthermore, Alorro et al. (2017) identified that the least common activity seafarers do are computer games and any other outdoor activities, some even specified window shopping is their weak suit.

Lastly, in the study of Ramos et al. (2017) entitled “Reasons for Joining the Teaching Profession among Selected Seafarers at JBLFMU-Arevalo” it was expounded that the entirety of seafarers is classified to enjoy teaching because of the will to share their knowledge among the youth. They have gathered enough experiences to teach and to guide young talents along their same chosen path. But if we divide them base on the years of experience on board. Those with 1-5 years, 11-15 and 21 above tend to put aside sailing in order to teach so that they can monitor the growth of their families. They want to live by their side and play along their children. On the other hand those seafarers with 6-10 years and 16-20 years of service implied that they want to teach to share their knowledge and experiences among students. Therefore, it is recommended for JBLFMU-Arevalo to add educational units for their students in preparation to become future maritime instructors.

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