Do you know everything except energy, what you see, touch, and smell are all made up by particles called atom? I will be introducing the topic about the history of the atomic theory, and the first people who noted there’s a thing called the atom. First, you have to know that atom, molecules and particles are different, an atom is made by a particle(proton, electron, and neutron), a molecule is a compound of the atom (1), a particle is a small portion of matter(2). Atoms are the smallest pieces that particle of a chemical element that can exist. When atom shows up with different forms, different density, it can create liquid, solid, and gases(3). Now, you might start to think who is the people that noted all the things? The things now we know is not just figuring out by one people, the things that we learn now is like a consolidate of all the scientist. John Dalton is the first person has a complete attempt to describe all matter is made of the atom, and other things about atoms, including model, and the theory(4).
In 1803, John Dalton proposed the modern theory of the atom based on the following of his own idea with a model, he started to do the gases experiment started from 19 century to prove what he is thinking is right(5). Now, you might ask what experiment did John Dalton do to have this kind of theory. In his most famous experiment, which is the main experiment that helps John Dalton can write all of the things. In his experiment, he studies the oxide and found out their ratio is 88.1% tin and 11.9% oxygen. John Dalton knows from the percentage that 100g of tin will mix with 13.5g or 27g of the oxygen, and 13.5 of and 26 is also a ration of 1:2. John Dalton figures out this experiment can explain really well that on the tin will combine with either one or two oxygen atom, which is a molecule. So in 1808, he uses the theory that the experiment shows to create a drawing that various atoms and molecules(6). In his model, which is only a circle, but it actually means a lot of things. John Dalton proposes that all matter is made out of a very small thing called the atom. Actually, this is not the first time that people think of this idea, in the ancient Greek Democritus also had propose that all matter is composed of atoms, which are indivisible(7).
As I mention, Dalton’s model is really simple, but it means a lot of things. We can say that the Dalton model opens the world of chemistry, and if Dalton didn’t propose his model we won’t know what are we made of and how to create something, almost everything in the world is related to chemistry, if we don’t have chemistry we will probably lose everything besides us(8). Because he proposes this model, some people called Dalton that he is a chemistry’s farther. In his model, he also explains the difference between compound and element which is, compound contains atoms with different elements and combined together to become a ratio. And element is just a chemical substance that made of the same type of atom(9). In Dalton’s model, it also can show the law of definite proportions and the law of multiple proportions(10).
Although, John Dalton’s model has a lot of strength, but there’s also a lot of weakness in his model. The biggest weakness of his model is, he say the indivisibility of an atom was proved wrong, atom can be subdivided into a proton, electron, and neutron, but atom is the smallest particle that will create a chemical reaction(11). In his theory, he also mentions that atom is indestructible, but that is not true today we all know that the way we can get nuclear is break up the atom, so the atom is destructible. In his theory, he also claims that every atom is completely different, but it is also proven wrong in some situations. For example, argon and calcium are different elements, but they have the same atomic mass.
In conclusion, I think Dalton’s model is really good for a started to let other scientists have a basic idea about how do the atomic theory works, but I think because at that time he didn’t have a basic idea of how is it works, so there are some weakness of his model, which is the proton, electron, and neutron. These three things almost mean everything in chemistry, but he opens the door for other scientists, because of all those scientists, this is why today we have a complete atomic theory.
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