In the modern day world , every concept has theories from past decade to explain its existence which is also in the case of advertising. The advertising theories tries to explain how advertising influences consumer behaviour and also how it establishes a base for an advertising campaign .There two theories which are most influential while making an advertising campaign are – the hierarchy of effects model and Means end theory.
Another theory which is very important is Means-end model has its basis from means end theory. It creates a frame work that helps marketers organise consumer research and build strategies along with it Products and the attributes pf consumers help understand the means to achieve the required state. Customers try to understand the quality of the products to help the achieve the final buying decision. Also the ways the customers perceives the product makes the product look unique and distinctive .According to the model, there are several end possibilities the consumer is trying to reach. These comprise of social tranquillity , personal gratification, self-realisation , security, love and achievement (Means-End Model, 2010).
To build an advertisement, every company needs an advertising agency. Advertising agency are the creators behind the ads , media plans and they formulate medium which conveys the message to the target market. The main goals of an agency is to sell the products and services of the clientele. They make an advertise on the basis of data collected about a product and also they perform a research on the company and evaluate the review of the customers to analyse the future line of action.
The objective behind hiring an agency is that they consist set of experts who perform all these jobs and it also save costs for the company in terms of expenditure.Furthermore the agencies are divided into two types which are In House agency and External advertising agencies when making an advertising program. Both agencies have their own advantages. Firstly, In House agency lowers the cost and the marketing department has more appropriate understanding of the product whereas for External agency has immense expertise in the field and has access to top talent.
When selecting an advertising agency , there are some information a company or a business has to take into consideration like – whether the agency covers all the market (market coverage),similarity between core skills of a business and the standards of the business, expertise in handling an international campaign is essential and most important aspect is the calibre of the agency to have strategic thinking .To cater to foreign markets , it is necessary to choose local agency in that particular destination. A lot of huge international advertising agencies have multiple offices in different locations all around the world so for instance , if a company wants to do an advertisement in Italy , they can contact the office of that agency located in Italy itself.
After advertising an advertisement , in order to retain their customers they can create a sales promotion in their advertising strategy. The main objectives of sales promotion is to attain on the spot sales. It is referred to as short term and immediate process. The array of tools used for promotion are – discounts, samples, coupons, special packages. Sales promotion has explicit impact on consumer’s buying decision and also promotions add more value to the product. Sales promotion also consists of three kinds of strategies to attract customers which are pull, push and hybrid. When a strategy has been formed , the type of promotion the company wants to do has to be decided.
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