Household Based Survey On Awareness of Dengue Fever

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Introduction

“If you think you are too small to make a difference, try sleeping with a mosquito”. According to WHO, more than 40% of the world population are in danger of dengue. Dengue is a life threatening mosquito borne viral disease among humans. It is spread due to aedes mosquito which breeds in the stagnant water. Around 128 countries were affected with dengue fever irrespective of ages[1]. It is spread in tropical and subtropical regions. Over half of the world’s population are at the areas in risk of transmission[2]. Also on both urban and rural areas based on the environmental conditions and people’s habits. The symptoms ranges from mild to severe complications which might lead to hospitalisation. The extreme cases of dengue causes Dengue haemorrhage fever and Dengue shock syndrome.

According to recent study, about 87% of the Southeast Asian population are at the risk of dengue fever[3]. The outbreak of dengue disease leads to fall in country’s economy and welfare of people. The dengue has evolved among people due to increased population, unawareness of mosquito barriers and climatic changes[4]. Places with increased water contamination and poor health care facilities dengue can enter easily through vectors. Improper blood transfusions and organ donation also causes dengue fever. It is the rapidly spreading fatal disease if left untreated.

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Materials and Methods

In this survey there were 100 participants in which all of them were females between the age group of 25-50 years. It is necessary for the females to be aware of dengue fever as it attacks their family members. Hence survey among them gives us a better data analysis. It’s a questionnaire based survey in which 13 questions were asked to assess their knowledge about dengue fever and undergoing preventive measures. It is a online survey done using a link surveyplanet.

Discussion and Result

Dengue is the global major public health challenge. It has both primary and secondary infections which is variable from adults to older people[5]. According to this survey, 79% of the females or their family members are affected with dengue. The progression of the disease varies from uncomplicated to severe. From this survey, 77% of them are aware that dengue is caused due to mosquito. It spreads due to female aedes mosquito. The life cycle of mosquito depends upon the extent of feeding lasts for 8-10 days[6]. It is epidemic vector having two stages: aquatic and terrestrial causing asymptomatic fever[7].

Around 66% of the females are aware that mosquito breeds in the stagnant water inside the house. About 65% and 60% of the participants do not change water in the container under fridge every week and are not clearing the standing water in terrace, flower pots etc. The main places where mosquito can breed is prolonged storage of garbage, storage of old tyres, non-closure of water containers,wet and soggy clothes etc. especially in rainy season[8]. Considering the symptoms, about 53% of the females are aware that high fever with rashes is one of the main symptoms taken in consideration for dengue fever and 47% are aware that dengue leads to decrease in platelet count which can be fatal. Other than this, headache, eye pain, nausea, persistent vomitting and body pain are also seen[9].

In severe cases like dengue hemorrhagic fever the symptoms shows abdominal pain, blood in stool and urine, difficulty in breathing, bleeding in gums and irritability[10]. About 57% of them felt that the duration of recovery from dengue is more than 2 weeks and 37% felt it is less than a week. But the recovery depends upon the severity and condition of the disease. The usual period of incubation is 10-14 days[11]. If an individual is previously affected with dengue,he/she can get dengue hemorrhagic fever which is fatal.

Conclusion

About 48.5% of them are using mosquito coils to protect themselves from mosquito bite and 28.3% are using mosquito bats. The clinician must be aware of all the clinical manifestation related to this condition and ensure the prior safety measures and guide the homemakers to keep their home clean and tidy. The advancement in antibiotics, vaccines and antigenic regimen must be established.

References

  1. Natasha Evelyn Anne Murray, Mikkel B Quam, and Annelies Wilder-Smith, “Epidemiology of dengue: past, present and future prospects”. Clin Epidemiol volume:5 pp:299–309.
  2. Gibbons RV, Vaughn DW. “Dengue: an escalating problem”. BMJ. 324(7543) pp:1563–1566.
  3. Srinivasa Rao Mutheneni, Andrew P Morse, Cyril Caminade and Suryanarayana Murty Upadhyaula, “Dengue burden in India: recent trends and importance of climatic parameters”. Emerg Microbes Infect. 6(8) pp:70
  4. Claudia Fabrizio, Luciana Lepore, Maria Chironna, Gioacchino Angarano, Annalisa Saracino, “ Dengue fever in travellers and risk of local spreading: case reports from southern Italy and literature update”. New microbiologica. 40(1) pp: 11-18.
  5. Shamimul Hasan, Sami Faisal Jamdar, Sadun Mohammad Al Ageed Al Beaji, “Dengue virus: a global human threat”. Journal of international society of preventive and community dentistry. 6(1) pp: 1-6.
  6. Teyssou R, “Dengue fever:from disease to vaccination”. Med trop(Mars). 69(4). pp:333-4.
  7. Champika gamakaranage, “Changes in coagulation profile in dengue patients with hepatitis attending to a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka”. Journal of infectious diseases. 4(1). pp:1-4.
  8. Shyamapada Mandal, “Preparedness for Global Dengue Resurgence: An Urgent Need”. Journal of infectious diseases. 9(150). pp: 1-150.
  9. Borkakoty B, Das M, Sarma K, Jakharia A, Das PK. “Molecular characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of dengue outbreak in Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India”. Indian J Med Microbiol 36(1) pp: 37-42.
  10. Anubhav Shivpuri1, Abhay Shivpuri, “Dengue-an overview” Dent.med.probl. 48(2) pp:153-156.
  11. Salles TS, Souza DFS “Quantitative dengue serotyping: the development of a higher performance method using SYBR green assay”. imedpub journals. 8(4:55) pp:1-12.
  12. Fabriozio, Lepore, Chironna, Angarano, Saracino, “Dengue fever in travellers and risk of local spreading: case reports from Southern Italy and literature update.” The New microbiologica . 40(1) pp:11-18.
  13. Thomas EA, John M, Bhatia A. Muco-Cutaneous manifstations of dengue fever. Int J Dermatol. 55(1) pp:79-85.
  14. Phanichyakarn P, Pongpanich B, Israngkura PB, Dhanamitta S, Valyasevi A. Studies on dengue hemorrhagic fever. IV. Fluorescent staining of immune complexes on platelets. J Med Assoc Thai. 60(7) pp:307-11
  15. Whitehorn J, Simmons CP. The pathogenesis of dengue. Vaccine. 29(1) pp:7221–8.
  16. Ranjit S, Kissoon N. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 12(1) pp:90–100.
  17. Radakovic-Fijan S, Graninger W, Müller C, Hönigsmann H, Tanew A. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in a British travel guide. J Am Acad Dermatol. 46(1) pp:430–3.
  18. Gurugama P, Garg P, Perera J, Wijewickrama A, Seneviratne SL. Dengue viral infections. Indian J Dermatol. 55(1) pp:68–78.
  19. Ying Ray lee, Hsuan Yun Hu, Szu Han Kuo, Huan Yao lei, “Dengue virus infection induces autophagy: an in Vivo study” journal of biomedical science. 20(65) pp:1-1
  20. Sampath A, Padmanabhan R. “Molecular targets for flavivirus drug discovery.”Antiviral Res. 81(1) pp:6–15.
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