Thermodynamic means the study of labor, heat, temperature and energy relations. Thermodynamic is a branch of physics, it explores how the energy in the system varies. Thermal energy is the energy which is due to the temperature of the material. Thermodynamic means the calculation of the energy. The system consists of a very large number of atoms or molecules which interact in a complicated manner.
Thermodynamics are composed of many material properties. Heat is transferred energy between material and device due to varying temperatures between them. The heat can also be transformed into and from other energy sources. The amount of heat transferred per material depends on the speed and number of moving atoms or molecules. The quicker the movement of atoms or molecules, the higher the temperature and the greater the number of atoms or molecules in motion, the greater the amount of heat they transfer. The temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy average. The amount of heat needed to increase a certain mass of a substance's temperature by some amount. The calorie is defined as the amount of heat energy required to lift 1 gram of water by 1 degree at 4C. The exact heat of a metal depends on how many atoms the sample contains.
Energy, the word work itself acquired a scientific significance with the advent of Newtonian mechanics In this way, the implementation of the principle of energy is of great importance in mechanics because, in the absence of friction, energy is never lost from the device, although it can be transferred from one form to another. As the science of physics grew to include an ever wider variety of phenomena, additional sources of energy became essential in order to maintain the total amount of energy constant for all closed systems. Albert Einstein discovered that energy (E) can also be stored as mass (m) and transformed back into energy, as expressed by his famous equation E = mc2, Where c is the speed of light. All of these systems are said to be conservative in the sense that the energy can be transformed freely without limit from one type to another.
The first law states that if heat is known as a source of energy, then a system's total energy plus its surroundings is conserved; in other words, the universe's total energy stays constant.
Q System + q Surrounding=0
If two processes, or bodies, are brought together, heat is transferred from the hotter body to the colder body as energy. Consequently, hotter body molecules lose kinetic energy to the cooler body. The effect is that the cooler body increases in temperature in the heat exchange between the bodies, and the hotter body decreases in temperature. The amount of heat needed to adjust a substance's temperature depends on:
- The amount of temperature change;
- The quantity of substance;
- The type of substance.
Energy can be divided into two parts. Typically Thermodynamic systems are called open, closed or isolated. An open system freely exchanges energy and material with its surroundings; a closed system exchanges energy with its surroundings but does not matter; and an isolated system does not exchange energy or matter with its surroundings
Heat engines transform mechanical energy into thermal energy, and vice versa. Most heat engines fall into the Open Systems group. A heat engine's basic theory exploits the relationships of a working fluid between heat, volume, and pressure. This fluid is usually a gas but in some situations, during a cycle, it may undergo phase changes from gas to liquid and back to gas. As gas is heated it expands; however, it increases in pressure when the gas is confined. If the containment chamber's bottom wall is the top of a movable piston, this pressure exerts a force on the piston's surface that causes it to push downwards. This movement can then be harnessed to do work equal to the total force applied to the piston top times the distance traveled by the piston.
As the heat flows from one body to another, heat transfer creates a change in temperature. Transferring heat can also induce a change in the state of matter. The calorie is the amount of heat needed to alter 1 g of water temperature by 1 degree Celsius The calorie is also related to the energy unit SI, joule.
1 calorie = 4.184 Joules
The heat capacity is the amount of heat required to adjust the device by 1 degree Celsius, usually expressed in Joules or Calories. The specific heat capacity is the amount of heat needed by 1 degree Celsius to lift 1 gram of a material.
Thermodynamic Properties and Relations. Because the thermodynamic state of a system depends on several variables, such as temperature, pressure and volume, it is important in practice to first determine how many of them are independent and then specify which variables are allowed to change while others are kept constant.
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of how heat and function are linked in both state changes and chemical reactions. It includes a set of rules and laws which explain how heat and function, well, function and which processes can happen spontaneously and need some supportTo grasp thermodynamics, describing something called a device first is important. A device is a collection of components which are interconnected. In short, this is the part of the planet that we are focussing on. We may look at what moves inside and out of a particular system In chemical thermodynamics there are many types of systems. An isolated structure has rigid walls, and does not require energy or mass transfer. The walls insulate well. A closed structure has walls allowing energy to flow in and out of the structure, but not allowing mass to enter or exit. And an open network enables entry and exit of both energy and matter.
The list of materials that are used for this experiment:
- Empty water bottle;
- Hot water;
- Ice water;
- Large bowl.
And the method that was used in this experiemnt:
- Fill the bottle with hot water, turn the water around to heat and pour the bottle out.
- Refill the 1/4 full bottle with hot water and put the balloon above.
- Fill the bowl with ice water, then place the bottle in the bowl.
- Match, when all the air from the balloon is removed. It might even get pulled into the bottle!
The results were as follows: hot air is expanding and air contracts are getting cool. So the air in the bottle is hot when you first put the ballon over the bottle. When the air cools down from the ice water, it expands and tries to suck in more air from outside. On average, hot air molecules have more space in between than cool air molecules. Therefore it expands as you heat air to create more room for the molecules. If you cool the air then it contracts because the cold air molecules need less energy than the molecules of hot air. These molecules are an integral part of cool air. They move quickly because that's what gas molecules do, but when we heat up the gas that makes the molecules move faster they move slower than the molecules in a hot atmosphere. As a result, they strike the container harder and the hot air rises more often, and the cold air rushes in to take its place. As the cold air floods up in heats it rises, and the cooler air floods in to take its place again outside. This is the basic function of a convection cell. .In a balloon, the atmosphere is heavier than the balloon and the air inside, so that the wind pushes the balloon upwards. Warm air spreads, as more molecules travel and spread. This makes it less dense and thus why warmer air will rise and cooler air will drop. The air molecules have more energy as the air gets warm and travel around more, taking up more space. As the warm air becomes denser than the cold air, it rises and floats above the cold air.
If you put the balloon over the bottle's opening all the air inside is trapped. Putting the bottle in hot water allows the air molecules to heat up inside and start taking up more space (thermal expansion), allowing air to penetrate and inflate the balloon. The air molecules cool back down and take up less room (thermal contraction) by dropping the container into the cold water.
So within this paper we were examing the influence of the thermodymanics on the balloon. Also we analyzed which elements within the limits of thermodynamics are involved in this process. Why the balloon got bigger? Air dispersed caught in the tube and the balloon. When hot, air expands; it stretches out and either fills a wider space or heightens the pressure in a closed room. As the bottle and the balloon were full of air molecules as you stretched the balloon over the opening and sealed them inside, when the bottle was heated, they started to expand up into the balloon. As the temperature increased, the air molecules moved faster and faster, and as a result, they could spread and fill a larger room. The expanding balloon confirmed this was happening. As the heat absorbs the air molecules the bottle on the hot plate gets hot because glass conducts (carries or moves) heat from one location to another If you push the bottle over the hot plate so the bottle gets hot as the heat radiates from the hot plate. The temperature inside the bottle increases when the bottle is put in the container containing hot water. The air within it therefore gets heated and expands. The air molecules travel farther apart taking more space than before, which allows the balloon to extend and stretch. This experiment shows warm air is taking up more space. The hot water even heats up the air inside the bottle, and the balloon. The faster moving particles inside the bottle begin to move faster and faster, and soon expand to fill the bottle.
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