Eating Disorder: Types, Causes, and Treatment Options

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Eating Disorder: Types, Causes, and Treatment Options essay
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Malaysia is a nation that has been recognized as a developing country and is one of the most competitive economists among developing countries in Asia. However, we as Malaysian are not immune to the mental illness disorder because of many common factors such as social, environmental and family factors. Any persons who have suffer from this mental illness will experience a huge change in their life without they realize. There were many types of mental illness that always happen to us. One of them is an eating disorder.

Eating disorders are a range of conditions expressed through abnormal or disturbed eating habits. Parekh (2017) stated that eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe disturbances in their eating behaviours and related thoughts and emotions. People with eating disorders typically become pre-occupied with food and their body weight. Besides that, this illness usually highly attacks young women such as students.

This statement may be supported by research from American Psychiatric Association. Eating disorder affect millions of people at any time especially at their young age between 12 and 35 (Parekh, 2017). This is because students more exposed to the stress that can lead to the factor of this illness. There are six type of eating disorder but three of them is a main such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

Type of Eating Disorder

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia Nervosa is one of type psychological and potentially eating disorder. People with anorexia can be considered an extreme attempt by someone to lose weight and can disrupt their lives. they have a strong fear of losing weight and distorted perceptions. They will also limit the intake of calories in the diet and they will also regulate the intake of food by regenerating the food they are eating. (Yvette Brazier, 2018). The people with anorexia nervosa will fiercely limit the quantity of food to consume and view themselves as overweight. Anorexia may damage health effects, such as brain damage, multi-organ failure, bone loss, heart difficulties, and infertility. The risk of death is highest in each person with this disease.

Bulimia Nervosa

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Bulimia nervosa is an intense preoccupation with body weight and shape, with regular episodes of uncontrolled overeating (binge eating) associated with extreme measures to counteract the feared effects of the overeating. The person who suffer from Bulimia will forced to vomiting, excessive exercise or extreme use of laxatives or diuretics. Also, may fear weight gain and feel severely unhappy with the size body and shape. Bulimia can have injuries effects, such as gastrointestinal problems, severe dehydration, and heart difficulties resulting from an electrolyte imbalance.

Binge Eating Disorder

According to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (2013), Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is defined by episodes of binge eating, during which large amounts of food are consumed within a certain time frame. Individuals who suffer from Binge Eating Disorder will frequently lose control to eat. Different from bulimia nervosa however, binge-eating are not followed by compensatory behaviour’s, such as purging, fasting, or excessive exercise. Because of that some people suffering from BED may get obese and risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This disorder may experience intense guilty, distress and embarrassment.

Rumination Disorder

Rumination disorder or rumination syndrome is infrequent clinical reported in infants and young children as well adults that brings back up and re-chews partially digested food that has already been swallowed. It’s a rare clinical which partially digested food in regurgitated into mouth effortlessly and painlessly after eating without any nausea, vomiting or disgust. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, pp. 332–3). Rumination syndrome is classified as Functional Gastroduodenal Disorder. Rumination syndrome is the term used in the place of rumination disorder in gastroenterology and is one of the less commonly recognized functional gastrointestinal disorders in the paediatric age group.

Causes of Disordered Eating

Eating disorder belong to complex disorder which influenced by a facet of factors. Thoroughly the exact causes of eating disorder are still unknown but, it is generally believed to a combination of biological, psychological and environment abnormalities to the development of these illness. There are few examples of biological factor such as, irregular hormone function, genetics and nutritional deficiencies. Psychological factors include the negative of body image and poor of self-esteem. However, environmental is the main factor of this eating disorder occur. Example dysfunctional in family dynamic, childhood trauma, cultural, pressure among friends and stress.

Sign and Symptoms of Eating Disorder

The individual suffering from an eating disorder may reveal an several signs and symptoms which are chronic dieting daily despite being hazardously underweight, constant weight fluctuations, extremely concern with body size and switching between periods of overeating or fasting. Other than that, some may obsess with ton of calories and fat contents in the daily eating. The person may also engage in fixation with eating patterns such as cutting food into tiny pieces, hiding food and eating alone or uncomfortable eating around others. Extreme mood swings, depression and lethargic stage may also show to the individual that suffer to eating disorder.

Treatment for Eating Disorder

Due to the seriousness and complexities of these conditions, an extensive and expert treatment group having some expertise in an eating disorder is frequently major in setting up healing and recovery. Treatment plans are used intending to the numerous worries a man or women may be facing in the rebuilding of their well-being and prosperity and are regularly custom fitted to address individual issues. Treatment for an eating disorder person is typically included at least one or more of the accompanying and tended to with medicinal specialists, nutritionists, and advisers for complete care.

The Medical Care and Monitoring is the most elevated worry in the treatment of eating disorder issues is tending to any health issues that may have been a result of eating cluttered practices. Besides that, nutrition is also a treatment for eating disorder problem. This would include weight reclamation and adjustment, direction for typical eating and the mix of an individualized dinner plan. Other than that, a different type of psychotherapy, for example, individual, family or gathering can be useful in tending to the fundamental reasons for eating disorders. Treatment is a central bit of treatment since it manages a person in recuperation and chance to address and mend from horrendous life occasions and learn more beneficial adapting aptitudes and techniques for communicating feelings, imparting and keeping up solid connections.

Some drugs might be viable in aiding resolve mood or uneasiness symptoms that can happen with an eating disorder or in decreasing voraciously consuming food and cleansing practices. Different levels of treatment, going from outpatient care groups to inpatient treatment focuses, are accessible and dependent on the seriousness of the eating disorder problem. Regardless, perceiving and tending to the eating disorder is critical in having the option to start treatment.


As conclusion, there are four main types of eating disorders which are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating and rumination disorder. These eating disorders have different type of cause, effect and treatment. Even though the road to recovery might be long and tough, there are effective treatments available to live a healthier life. There is some better treatment in the form of psychotherapy and collaborative care of other health professionals at medical and nutritional needs. Eating disorder is a serious mental health condition that should be concerned. Because of the lack of awareness only a small minority suffer from eating disorder receive the correct mental health treatment.

The most important thing that encourage one can do for a person who is suffering from any kind of eating disorder is help them through it and help them seek medical attention. The medical attention that is required for this kind of treatment is normalization of eating patterns, enhancement of self-esteem, development of solid self-concept, and improvement of problem-solving and decision-making skills. The support from family members and friends are helpful and the right way to help victim’s recovery.

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