Development Of Entrepreneurial Intentions Through Vocational Trainings Programs

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Introduction

Now a Days, unemployment ratio is getting higher day by day in developing countries among youth, having age of 16 to 24 years. Statistically, 14 percent of world’s population consists of young unemployed, under age of 24 years, and 40 percent of total unemployed persons are youth (United Nations, 2012). The main reason of increase in unemployment is high growth rate of population in all over the world. (Wazeer, 2018)

High poverty is not only factor caused by high unemployment, there are many factors resulted by it. Such as increase in crimes (Blattman, 2016) misery dominance (Frese, 1987), increase in substance abuse rate (Linn, 1985) and increase in rate of social violence (Shubha Chakravarty, 2018). Likewise, Pakistan is also facing and suffering from this burning issue of Unemployment, unemployment rate in Pakistan is 5.9 percent, where number of unemployed persons in Pakistan is 3620 thousand (Kazmi, 2017).

Thus, be intended for unemployment with efficient interventions, focusing on youth, is one from high priority for a developing country (World Development Report, 2013). Lack of skills of creating source of income is one of the most important factor from numerous determinants of increase in unemployment and poverty (Malamud, 2010). A common and effective policy used by countries to develop and enhance the ability of self-employment is Vocational training programs. Till today, 700 vocational programs in 100 countries are introduced to develop entrepreneurship (Shubha Chakravarty, 2018).

Creating an entrepreneur is very difficult task, not only because, it needs entrepreneurial mind that is not formed easily, but also it is impacted by facilitators, include syllabus and teachers (Winarno A., 2012). It is observed that teachers teach more the knowledge of entrepreneurship rather than developing the entrepreneur mindset in young leaners. Actual motive of entrepreneurship education is to develop abilities, knowledge and mindsets towards self-employment rather than giving information about Entrepreneurship activities (Hansemark, 1998). Due to entrepreneurship education learner should become able to form a self-employment opportunity and with fluent knowledge in business and establish his or her psychological attributes, such as, self-confidence, self-steam and self-efficacy (Košir, 2009). In earlier time it is believed that entrepreneurship is an inherent talent but now a days approach is adopted that it is a science that can be learned (Košir, 2009). It is a key change agent in all sought of sectors of economy (Kuratko, 2005).

Numerous studies show, formal entrepreneurship education is not sufficient to make a student entrepreneur and failed to develop entrepreneurial mindset among youth, on another hand vocational training program’s contribution on this matter is seems attractive (Winarno A., 2012).Further, entrepreneurial mindset among youth is not developed in sufficient manner through formal education of entrepreneurship, research shows that the syllabus and learning strategy is not adequately effective in encouraging students to be an entrepreneur and also the knowledge of teachers or instructors is impacting development of entrepreneurship activities (Kennedy, 2003).

Entrepreneurship education at university of Scotland is not a way to solve the problem of unemployment, they only provide some job skills to learners (Effah, 2013). The process of learning is not only accepting knowledge, but it is the process related to social surroundings (Moreland, 2002), a teacher should possess ability to transfer and built entrepreneur attitudes, personality, characteristics and abilities to his or her leaners ( European Commission, 2002). Teacher plays key role in entrepreneurship education. The instructor is supposed to be capable to instill entrepreneurial attitude and character in leaners (World Economic Forum, 2009)

According to perspective of course distribution curriculum, mostly the instructors complain that available time is not enough for this course. Due to this, teachers are not free to develop innovative and creative environment to teach entrepreneurship course. (Winarno A., 2016 )

This study is needed to be conducted for examining the performance of youth in field of entrepreneurship and the programs of vocational training, that either they are working or not? If not, than which one is basic factor that effects the entrepreneurship development. Due to this research, it is refined that entrepreneurship development is mainly depended on teacher’s ability and structure of course curriculum, if it is not working properly than where is mistake, which factor is not performing well. This study should be conducted to answer the questions that; either teachers are only providing entrepreneurship education or they are playing role to create entrepreneurship mindset among youth? And is the course and time available for teaching this course is sufficient?

The term Entrepreneurship refers, a person’s capability to convert his or her ideas into marketable solution. It includes innovation, creativity, risk taking and the ability to plan and manage earning events in order to achieve settled goals. This education supports one’s day-to-day life at home and in society, and gives a platform to entrepreneurs setting up social and commercial activities. Entrepreneurship education is not same as general business and economic studies is, its objectives is to encourage self-employment, creativity and innovation. However, advantages of entrepreneurship are not limited to start new businesses, of creating innovative venture and developing new jobs. Entrepreneurship is a competence for individual, it encourages youth to be more creative and increases confidence in area what they undertake. (EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2009)

Vocational training relates, acquirement of understanding, knowledge, practical skills and attitudes related to various occupation in various economic and social segments, in others words it prepares graduates to participate effectively in the world of work. It refers, short-period training at small scale workplaces, such as operating small and medium enterprises in simple sectors i.e. tailoring, food processing etc. or the professional trainings such as mechanics, office administration etc. (Majurin, 2016 ) It differs from academic programs in context of curriculum and aim to prepare students for unambiguous work

Many researches are conducted in world including, United Kingdom, Sweden, Slovakia, Spain, Slovenia, Romania, Poland, Norway, Malta, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Italy, Hungary, Germany, France, Estonia, Denmark, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Belgium, Austria, to identify the gaps and flaws in development of entrepreneurship attitudes through vocational training programs (EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2009), but in Pakistan there is need to be conduct a study to analyze real outcome of training programs i.e. BBSVDP, NEVTEC etc. It is needed know that either we are investing in a way to reduce unemployment to develop entrepreneurial mindsets among youth of our country or not.

Scope of Research

The purpose of this research is to gain better understanding about entrepreneurship development through various factors regarding to vocational training programs including, teacher’s ability, and curriculum of institute, and students intention towards new start-ups. As well as checking the contribution of NEVTEC (vocational training program) in developing entrepreneurship attitude among students of rural Sindh. This study will be conducted from Dadu.

Problem statement

As this study related with entrepreneurship development because of increasing unemployment and poverty in Pakistan, and entrepreneurship development is the way that can be solution to these problems. (EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2009) But in Pakistan most of educational institutes are providing only Entrepreneurship education, where we need practical intention and attitudes of students towards entrepreneurship.

Research objectives

Some specific objectives of this study is given below:

  • To review existing vocational training programs, and the methods used by teachers.
  • To search important factors that plays important role in developing entrepreneurship intention among students of vocational training programs.
  • To review students satisfaction towards teacher pedagogic methods.
  • To assess Motivation of students intention towards new start-ups

Research questions

  • Are the methods used be teachers in existing vocational training programs working?
  • What plays important role in development of entrepreneurship intention among students?
  • Either the students are satisfied by teacher’s pedagogic methods or not?
  • What is the motivation for student’s intention towards new start-ups?

Proposed research model

Here, Entrepreneurship intention is dependent variable and Teacher’s skills and curriculum feasibility are independent variable.

Research hypothesis

H1. Teacher’s skills including, pedagogic method, entrepreneur knowledge and ability to convey practical knowledge to students, has positive relation with entrepreneurship intention development.

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H2.Course/ curriculum feasibility comprises of, course structure and course time, has positive relation with entrepreneurship intention development.

Literature review

Entrepreneur comes from the French word entrepredre, which intends to embrace, a person who attempts a mechanical or business action including money related dangers and abilities for the reasons for making benefits. a business person as an individual or people who has the capacity to perceive and assess business openings, amass the important assets to exploit them and make proper move to guarantee achievement. Business visionary can be begat as an advancing person who has built up a progressing business movement where none existed previously (Meredith, 1983).

The beginning of professional training was the endeavor at influencing instruction to be significant to all to financial substances of the country and quick network. (Fafunwa, 1985). Business enterprise instruction is the training that gives preparing, knowledge and abilities that are reasonable for pioneering attempts’. Consequently, business enterprise training readies the person with innovative information, fitness and abilities should have been confidence. (Anthony. J.U, Saidu, A., Mohammed, M. &Junguru, I., 2009). Entrepreneurship is characterized as a procedure of sorting out, overseeing and expecting danger of a business undertaking (Leebaert, 1990). Entrepreneurship is the demonstration of beginning an organization, masterminding business arrangements and going out on a limb so as to make a benefit through the instruction abilities acquired (Omolayo, 2006).

Entrepreneurship is a procedure of uniting the components of creation, which incorporate land, work and capital in order to give an item or administration to open utilization (Nwangwu, 2006). Entrepreneurship is characterized as a person’s capacity to transform thoughts without hesitation. It incorporates inventiveness, Innovation, hazard taking just as the capacity to design and oversee ventures. This help everybody in day-today life at home and in the public arena, representative in monitoring their work, having the capacity to catch openings and is a Foundation for explicit abilities and information required by business visionaries Establishing social or business action.

Entrepreneurship can be conceptualized as ‘the way toward uniting inventive and imaginative thoughts and coupling these with the executives and hierarchical aptitudes so as to consolidate individuals, cash and assets to meet a recognized need and make riches. In a similar vein, the operational meaning of business is the readiness and capacity of an individual or people to obtain instructive abilities to investigate and misuse venture openings, build up and deal with a fruitful business undertaking (EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2009)

Entrepreneurship education is organized to accomplish the accompanying goals.

  1. To offer practical training for the adolescent that will empower them to be independently employed and confident.
  2. Provide the youthful alumni or the person with satisfactory preparing that will empower them to be imaginative and creative in distinguishing novel business openings.
  3. To fill in as an impetus for financial development and advancement.
  4. To decrease high rate of destitution.
  5. Create work age.
  6. Reduction in country urban relocation.
  7. Provide the youthful alumni/individual with enough preparing and bolster that will empower them to set up a vocation in little and medium estimated organizations.
  8. To teach the soul of constancy in the adolescents and grown-ups which will empower them to persevere in any business adventure they set out on.
  9. Create smooth change from conventional to an advanced mechanical economy. (Paul, 2005)

Intentions are defined as the persuasive components influencing somebody’s conduct. They are likewise markers about the person’s readiness power or about the effort which he means to make to achieve a specific conduct (Erikson, 2005).. The enterprising aim is one of the indicators of pioneering penchant. To be sure, innovative expectation is basically dictated by the business visionary’s close to home convictions (Davidsson, 1995). It is de fined by the person’s decisions about the likelihood of owning his own business. It declares that the association of mental and physical (age, sex, and so forth …) characteristics just as expert and innovative experience causes an enterprising goal.

The greater part of the examinations on pioneering expectation depend on Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (1991). This hypothesis gives a commonsense hypothetical model that is relevant to purposeful conduct given that it rejects outside factors as quick determinants of conduct. As per Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior, aim is the result of three calculated deterministic elements, namely:

  • The attitude toward the behavior: It assigns the person’s positive or horrible assessment about conduct (Ajzen, 1991). This variable speaks to the appeal of the proposed conduct. (Ajzen, 1991)
  • The perceived social rule: It compares to the person’s impression of social weight from relatives, families and friends, and what they think about his choice to fire up a business (Fayolle, 2006)
  • The perceived behavioral control: It alludes to the apparent simplicity or difficulty to play out a specific conduct. In addition to other things, it alludes to the recognition an individual has about the individual attainability of the conduct being referred to (Davidsson, 1995). At that point, the individual’s profile and his hypothetical and observational foundation has an effect on his aim to attempt an advance business.

A review of various ongoing activities in which fundamentally governments have utilized this mix, laying out the models extensively as far as their points and specialized highlights, for example, who are the recipients; what is the succession of the diverse sorts of preparing that are given; who gives the different kinds of preparing; and how the model is financed. The cases illustrated in this segment incorporate activities in the Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Senegal and Vietnam.

Instructors with sufficient abilities to train enterprise is viewed as a noteworthy test. There is by all accounts a deficiency of explicit aptitudes among instructors. The present circumstance is that most instructors have not been prepared in business. Subsequently, they might be uninformed of the correct way to deal with business instructing. Instructors ought to have a superior comprehension of business enterprise training and the scope of points, techniques and substance of it. There is a requirement for more educator preparing, courses and workshops, and to scatter comprehension of various ways and strategies to help the innovative mentality. Starting and further instructor preparing is of the most astounding significance, however business enterprise instruction isn’t yet included efficiently in preparing programs for teachers, and it tends to be dangerous to get educators’ universities included.

Much of the time, hands on preparing on business is given by outer associations conveying projects to schools. For example, an assessment done by the Eastern Norway Research Institute demonstrates that 80 % of ‘at work’ preparing is conveyed by the NGO JA-YE Norway. Around 2000 instructors participated in such preparing in 2007/08. It is significant that educators are taken through a similar learning process that they will use with their understudies, for example making a thought and completing it, questioning the getting the hang of, surveying the abilities and learning created, and assessing the whole procedure. Educator preparing necessities to build up the particular abilities required to show business, for example,

Project management skills

The core of enterprise instruction is understudies setting fully operational a venture. Instructors require the abilities to help understudies all through this procedure, which incorporates: arranging and setting up the undertaking (setting destinations and recognizing what precisely is required and how it very well may be completed, and so forth.); envisioning understudies’ needs at each phase of the task; defining individual targets and objectives all through the venture; and doing the last assessment

Pedagogic skills

The accentuation is on teaching methods that energize learning: by doing; by trade; by analysis; by hazard taking and ‘positive’ botch making; by innovative critical thinking; by input through social connection; by performing and acting the part; by investigating good examples; and by cooperating with the outside/grown-up world. This includes the instructor in proposing and directing as opposed to giving guidance, asking ‘open’ questions that don’t really prompt one right answer, learning close by the understudies, settling clashes and troubles that may emerge and influencing understudies to look up to things they may at first oppose or keep away from. (Shubha Chakravarty, 2018)

Research methodology

Research design

The data will be collected from 100 students of NEVTEC program from various centers of Dadu city. That sample selection will be probability based.

Data collection method

Data will be collected through both primary source as well as secondary source, survey will be conducted as primary source and data gathered from research articles is treated as secondary data.

Research instrument

In this study we will use questionnaire as research instrument. It will contain 25 close-ended questions.

Research data analysis

For data Analysis and editing and coding, statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) software will be used.

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