Common Sleep Problems Their Symptoms and Causes

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Sleep is an important part of our lives which allows your body and brain to rest, making you very fresh and energetic by the time you wake up.Moreover,a good amount of sleep is helping the body remain in healthy condition. However, the lack of sleep can prevent you from concentrating, thinking clearly, and processing information.Grown up people require from eight to nine full hours of sleep. On the other hand, teenagers and children need a lot more hours. 

Many daily factors (which include, but not limited to : strict work schedules, disruptive environments, as well medical conditions) can prevent us from receiving enough sleep. However there is a much more elaborate side of sleeping. It is widely known that there are four descriptive stages of sleep, that includes: 1) NREM #1(non-rapid eye movement)​: This first stage is the transition between being awake and falling asleep,and is defined as light sleep.The whole is starting to slow down and relax , as does your brain activity. Duration of this stage is fairly short: about several minutes; 2) NREM #2(non-rapid eye movement)​: This second sleep stage is deeper. 

Body will be even more relaxed and your temperature will begin to slowly decrease. Brain activity is also going down as you fall into the deeper stages of sleep Stage 2 can last up to multiple hours; 3) NREM #3(non-rapid eye movement)​: Stage 3 is the one responsible for us feeling fresh and ready to go the next morning. Its duration will shorten over time. 4) REM(rapid eye movement)​: The first rapid eye movement stage occurs early. Eyes will move quickly under the eyelids. Dreaming will occur during REM sleep. The duration of REM sleep cycle increases with sleep duration. 2) Common sleep problems There are many sleep problems that can prevent one from having a relaxing, full and healthy night sleep, thus damaging the brain and other systems of the human body. Here we will cover some of above mentioned problems and their causes: 1) Insomnia​: This is a condition that makes it hard to get to sleep or stay asleep. If left unattended Insomnia can be a powerful and deadly destructive force that can lead to major health problems(blackouts, hallucinations etc. ). 

The telltale signs of insomnia are primarily referred to sleep quality and duration, as this illness can cause difficulties falling asleep, waking one up earlier or even preventing from sleeping at all. Often insomnia is a fallout from another illness or disorder. Anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders have a chance to disrupt sleep by extreme and sudden mental stress. Many medications can also prevent one from sleeping by increasing the levels of sugar, as well as upping the blood pressure; 2) Sleep apnea​: is a serious yet common sleep disorder. One’s airflow repeatedly becomes blocked. This can lead to involuntary choking noises and snoring. Sleep apnea interferes with the main concept of sleep: rest and relaxation. The number of times apnea occurs over the night can vary from case to case: from a couple to hundreds of times per night. Symptoms of sleep apnea vary from minor to severe. The lowest tier symptoms usually include very loud snoring and morning headaches. 

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On the other hand, major level symptoms include excessive irritability, gasping for air while asleep and ​episodes in which one stops breathing during sleep. Sleep apnea can be one of the disorders leading to insomnia. Sleep apnea can be caused by biometrical parameters. Excess weight can lead to fat deposits obstructing one’s upper airway. Age also may be one of the reasons to cause sleep apnea, as it occurs more often in old people. 3) Narcolepsy​: This disorder causes you to suddenly fall asleep at any time no matter where you are. Oftentimes, you fall asleep uncontrollably during unusual circumstances, such as while eating. People with narcolepsy are unable to regulate their sleep-wake cycle. Narcolepsy has a set of very sudden and distinctive symptoms such as: strong daytime sleepiness, which might shut you down at any moment throughout the day; loss of muscle tone leading to a number of basic function problems of human body; and sleep paralysis, a condition in which the body is paralized yet the human is still awake. 

Narcolepsy can be a one of the outcomes of a severe case of Insomnia. Yet there is a research that states the connection between narcolepsy and a variation of Swine flu and its vaccine. 2.a)Logical solutions for sleep problems In today's world there are many solutions, both conventional and unconventional, for solving sleep problems. However, above mentioned problems cannot be solved without consulting a specialist, that being psychiatrist, physiologist and nutritionist. Down below we will look deeply into every possible solution for each of the major sleep problems: 1) Insomnia​: a solution to this problem lies within the change of the personal daily life routine, unlike some of the discussed issues. A professional psychiatrist will advise one to enforce the bedtime schedule and keep it consistent; do more activities, such as walking and exercising, which will stimulate one’s mental and physical attributes; and to limit or even avoid caffeine, alcohol and nicotine consumption. 2) Sleep Apnea​: there are multiple ways to solve this issue, which require a moderate amount of effort. First, one should maintain a healthy weight. 

This means following a healthy and balanced diet as well as regularly exercising and doing more outdoor activities. Secondly, ​altering your sleep position can reduce sleep apnea symptoms and improve your night’s rest. A 2006 study found that more than half of obstructive sleep apnea cases are dependent on position, because some of them may obstruct one’s airflow. Thirdly, devices such as humidifiers can make a major impact. Dry air an irritate the body and the respiratory system. Using a humidifier can open airways, decrease congestion, and encourage clearer breathing. 3) Narcolepsy​: in this case simple change of the sleeping environment and schedule is not enough. Narcolepsy is mainly treated with special and certified medication. 

Drugs that stimulate the central nervous system are the primary treatment to help people with narcolepsy stay awake during the day. Doctors often try modafinil (Provigil) or armodafinil (Nuvigil).. Side effects are uncommon, but may include headache, nausea or anxiety.​ However if mixed with other medication ,non-related to narcolepsy, said medication can cause serious problems.​Certain over-the-counter drugs, such as allergy and cold medications, can cause drowsiness. If you have narcolepsy, your doctor will likely recommend that you avoid taking these medications. 3)The occurrence rate 1)​Rate of insomnia​:​A 1979 Gallup poll survey showed that 95% of the adult population had experienced insomnia. The current literature states that approximately one third of all people have sleep problems in the given year. 

Of those, only half consider the problem serious enough to ask for medical advice. Sleep disorders appear to affect women more often than men, and the complaints increase with age.While the younger generation tends to have trouble falling asleep,the older generation has difficulty maintaining sleep. 2)​Rate of sleep apnea​: An interview conducted by the Oxford Academic​ in a presumably healthy working population exposed that ​seventy-eight workers, drawn from a population of one thousand five hundred and two presumably healthy working men who were interviewed about sleep habits and sleep disorders. 

A significant link was found between the excessive daytime sleepiness and the incidence of sleep apnea. Workers with more than 10 apneas per hour of sleep had significantly louder snoring and frequent headaches. 3)​Rate of Narcolepsy​:​A study by the US NORD has placed the incidence of new cases of narcolepsy at 0 .74 per 100,000 person-years in the general population in the United States. The disorder has also been estimated to affect 1 in 2,000 people in the general population. However, because narcolepsy often goes unrecognized or misdiagnosed, determining its real frequency in the general population appears to be very difficult.

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